How to Design a New Job — a New Position or Role (Job Descriptions)
Sections of This Topic Include
Related Library Topics
(Before reading this topic, be sure to read the definitions and various steps
in the staffing process
to notice where this topic fits in the overall process.)
© Copyright Carter McNamara,
Ultimately, you’re aiming to develop a job description for the new role. However,
rather than looking at a variety of sample job descriptions now, it’s much more
useful to carefully think about what you want in the role, rather than what
others suggest in their job descriptions.
1. First, try think of the knowledge, skills and/or abilities (competencies)
that might be useful for someone to have in the job. Think about the results
of your previous staffing planning.
2. Consider interviewing someone — in or outside of your company — who already
has some of those competencies. Share your staffing plan. Ask them to suggest
3. Observe an employee or employees in similar jobs as they as the perform
a task or conduct the role. What areas of knowledge do you see the employees
using? What skills do you see the employees performing?
4. Consider administering a questionnaire to the employee or employees. On
the questionnaire, ask them to describe certain practices and procedures to
carry out the task or perform the role in the best way possible. Explain that
the questionnaire is to help the trainer help the employees to perform a task
or conduct a role better.
5. Ideally, get advice from customers about what knowledge and skills are useful
in delivering the best quality products or services to them.
6. A generic list of competencies may already exist for a role. For example,
professional associations sometimes provide generic lists.
(As with job descriptions, there are those who have strong cautions about the
use of competencies. Some experts assert that competencies should define the
abilities for someone to excel in a certain role, that is, meet high performance
standards, whereas other experts assert that competencies should define the
abilities to adequately perform in the role.)
© Copyright Carter McNamara,
(Be sure to see all the steps in the Staffing
process and where this step fits in the process)
1. Draft a preliminary job description.
Draft a job description which specifies the general responsibilities of the
new position along with some of the specific duties to be conducted by the role,
the title for the position, and any special skills, training or credentials
Do not merely seek job descriptions from other organizations and adopt those
as is. Your open position is unique and job descriptions are very important
so you should develop your own – the process of completing the job description
is usually quite enlightening.
- Note which job activities are essential and which are non-essential.
- Add whom the position reports to and whether the position is full-time or
- Consider if the position requires any special physical skills. This may
be important when considering accommodations to candidates with physical disabilities
and effects. Various government agencies have employment laws in this regard,
for example, in the USA, the Americans with Disabilities Act.
- If the position must be filled by a paid employee (see the next paragraph
to consider if a consultant is more appropriate), consider if the position
is salaried or hourly. Usually, highly skilled and/or professional roles are
salaried, while entry-level positions are hourly.
- Invite employees to review and edit the drafted job description.
- Consider including a six-month probationary period for the new position
and if you do so, be sure to update your personnel policies to describe your
organization’s use of the probationary conditions. A probationary period allows
you to fire an employee during the six months if you have concerns and greatly
decreases the chances you will be sued for wrongful termination.
2. For nonprofits: Would a volunteer be most appropriate to fill the role?
Consider filling the position with a volunteer if the job involves activities
- Fairly routine
- Not necessarily time-critical (that is, must be done by a certain deadline)
- Volunteers are also useful when there simply is no money to pay someone
to do the job.
3. Would a consultant (independent contractor) be most appropriate?
At this point, consider if a consultant might fill the new position. For example,
it is common for small- to medium-sized organizations to hire accountants as
consultants. Generally, if the activities associated with your new role require
any of the following, then consider hiring a consultant:
- Highly skilled personnel for a fixed and limited duration
- Unskilled personnel for a fixed and limited duration, but it is not likely
that you can find a volunteer to fill the role
- A unique set of resources or tools that are not commonly available and
would come with a professional (for example, a graphics designer)
- Note that the consideration whether to hire an employee or an independent
contractor is a very serious one. If the wrong choice is made, then you may
be assessed strong fees and penalties by the Internal Revenue Service in the
4. Determine the approximate cost of the new role.
- Estimate the salary range for the new position. Set this range by talking
to other organizations with similar product or services, or by scanning classified
sections of newspapers with ads for similar roles. You can also reference
various salary surveys.
- Finalize how much the position will cost the organization by adding “fringe”
to the salary. Fringe includes costs of benefits planned for the new role,
including health and dental and life insurance, and retirement benefits, along
with Workers Compensation and any pension plans. Note that, depending on the
state in which you live, you may be required to pay certain employment taxes
for part-time people, often if they are at or over half-time. For planning
purposes, fringe might be estimated at 40% of the salary.
- Additional costs of the position result from training, equipment, rental
of space, postage, copying, etc. You should develop a compensation program,
with policies that outline the procedure for determination of salary and benefits.
5. Get feedback and authorization from the Board, in the case of corporations.
The Chief Executive Officer may want to work with the Board Chair to prepare
for communication of the new job to the Board. Propose the new position to the
Board by attaching a proposal letter to the drafted job description along with
description of how the position will be funded and sending it to all Board members
for their review before the next Board meeting. At the next Board meeting, invite
open discussion and questions about the new role. Seek their authorization for
the new position.
6. Finalize the job description.
Update the job description with relevant feedback from others. It is important
that the job description be as accurate as possible because it is the basis
for determining compensation, conveying the role to the new employee and conducting
regular performance appraisals. Be sure to note the version of the job description
by including the date on the bottom. The job description should be reviewed
and updated annually, usually by the employee and supervisor during the performance
Reference some of the Additional Perspectives on Defining
New Jobs and Roles and Job Descriptions.
Then return to Staffing
for the next step in the staffing process.
Additional Perspectives on Defining New Jobs and Roles and Job Descriptions
Wageweb Job Descriptions
Standard Industrial Classifications (SIC) Index
U.S. Office of Personnel Management General Schedule Position
Job description samples, templates, profiles, duties, responsibilities
and job specifications
Sample Job Descriptions
Job Analysis & Design, Recruitment, Selection, Outsourcing
Learn More in the Library’s Blogs Related to Defining a Job and Job Descriptions
In addition to the articles on this current page, see the following blogs which
have posts related to Designing a Job and Job Descriptions. Scan down the blog’s
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For the Category of Human Resources:
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