Quality Management: Guidelines and Resources

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Sections of this topic

    Quality Management: Guidelines and Resources

    Copyright Carter McNamara, MBA, PhD, Authenticity Consulting, LLC.

    Before reading this topic, you might read about the Relationship
    Between Managing Supply Chain, Operations, Quality, Customer Relationships and
    Customer Service

    Sections in this Topic Include

    Introduction to Quality Management

    What is Quality Management?
    We All Are Doing Quality Management
    Quality Management in Organizations
    Quality Is Best Managed as a System
    More Terms in Quality Management
    Pioneers in Organizational Quality Management

    Approaches to Quality Management

    Some Common Approaches to Quality Management
    Balanced Scorecard
    Business Process Reengineering
    Continuous Improvement (Process Improvement)
    Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
    Lean Management
    Quality Circles
    Six Sigma
    Total Quality Management
    Additional Approaches to Quality Management
    Useful Tools in Quality Management

    Planning Your QMS

    Develop Your QMS Team
    Establish Quality Management Goals
    Decide What Organizational Design Changes
    Are Needed?

    Select Your Approach to QM
    Select Your Quality Management Software

    Developing Your QMS

    Redesign Your Organization As Needed for QMS
    Begin Cultivating a Quality Management Culture
    Delegate QMS Goals to Teams and Employees
    Train Your Employees About Quality Management

    Managing Your QMS

    Manage Your QMS Teams and Employees
    Manage Your QMS Software
    Audit Your QMS System

    General Resources

    Additional Overviews

    Also consider
    Relationship Management
    Customer Service

    Chain Management
    Related Library Topics


    What is Quality Management?

    We All Are Doing Quality Management

    We tend to think of the activities in quality management as occurring primarily
    in businesses, and especially in manufacturing. However, all of us are engaged
    in quality management. Think of a certain time that you wanted to accomplish
    something, for example, to achieve a certain goal or to provide an ongoing service.
    You probably started by planning how to do it. Then you implemented your plan
    to try it out for a while. Then you continued to notice changes that were needed
    to improve it. Basically, you were doing quality management — you were continuing
    to improve the quality of achieving the goal or of the service.

    Perhaps you have worked for a supervisor in an organization. The supervisor
    asserted certain goals that you were to achieve, as well as certain tasks that
    you were to do. As you worked to do that, you and your supervisor monitored
    how well you were doing your job. The supervisor might have shared feedback
    about how you were doing, as well as some suggestions to make things better.
    You might have had an annual performance appraisal meeting with the supervisor
    in which you got an official rating of how well you do were doing. Those activities
    are referred to as employee performance management. They are a form of quality
    control — although the term “control” might have negative connotation
    in that situation.

    Quality Management in Organizations

    Here are some definitions of quality management in an organizational setting:

    • “Quality management is the act of overseeing all activities and tasks
      needed to maintain a desired level of excellence. This includes the determination
      of a quality policy, creating and implementing quality planning and assurance,
      and quality control and quality improvement.” Investopedia
    • “Quality management” ensures superior quality products and services.
      Quality of a product can be measured in terms of performance, reliability
      and durability. Quality is a crucial parameter which differentiates an organization
      from its competitors. Quality management tools ensure changes in the systems
      and processes which eventually result in superior quality products and services.”
      Management Study Guide
    • “Quality management is the act of overseeing different activities and
      tasks within an organization to ensure that products and services offered,
      as well as the means used to achieve them, are consistent. It helps to achieve
      and maintain a desired level of quality within the organization.” CFI
      Education, Inc

    The activities of quality management are somewhat different between developing
    and delivering products and services. A product is a tangible item, whereas
    a service is intangible. Thus, products are easier to monitor and measure so
    quality management of products is more straightforward to do. Services are more
    difficult to measure because the quality depends on subjective matters such
    as the quality of the relationship between the service provider and the customer.

    Quality Is Best Managed as a

    A system is a recurring cycle of activities, including:

    1. Planning to determine goals and how they can be achieved, and
    2. Then developing and managing resources and activities to achieve those goals,
    3. Then evaluating whether the goals have been achieved or not, and
    4. Then using the learning from the evaluation to improve the quality of the
      next round of planning.

    Thus, a system is a recurring loop of components — in a continuous cycle of
    improvement. Quality management is best done as a system; otherwise, the management
    tends to be highly reactive and sporadic, often resulting in a patchwork of
    disconnected and ineffective activities.

    Again, we turn to the American
    Society of Quality
    : “A quality management system (QMS) is defined as
    a formalized system that documents processes, procedures, and responsibilities
    for achieving quality policies and objectives. A QMS helps coordinate and direct
    an organization’s activities to meet customer and regulatory requirements
    and improve its effectiveness and efficiency on a continuous basis.”

    More Terms in Quality Management

    There are a several quality-related terms, most of which sound similar to each
    other, but that are somewhat different. These include:

    Quality Assurance and Quality Control

    The American
    Society for Quality
    distinguishes the difference. Quality assurance is “focused
    on providing confidence that quality requirements will be fulfilled.” Quality
    control is “more the inspection aspect of quality management” or “the
    operational techniques and activities used to fulfill requirements for quality.”

    Quality Planning

    writes that quality planning is for “identifying which quality standards
    are relevant to the project and determining how to satisfy them”. So essentially
    it is the process that specifies the measurable requirements and milestones
    and for when they are to be achieved.

    Quality Improvement

    S. Department of Health and Human Services
    writes that “Quality improvement
    (QI) consists of systematic and continuous actions that lead to measurable improvement
    in health care services and the health status of targeted patient groups.”

    Quality Concepts
    of Quality Management Terms
    Quality Glossary
    Free Training
    Programs About Quality Management

    Pioneers in Organizational Quality

    W. Edwards Deming led the quality management in Japan after World War II. Today,
    Japan stands as an example of the accomplishments and prestige that come from
    producing high-quality products. He has been credited with starting the quality
    movement in America. Deming frequently spoke about identifying “best practices”
    in developing and providing an organization’s products. Those best practices
    were to be integrated into a performance management system as standards against
    which a current level of performance were to be measures.
    Edwards Deming’s 14 Points for Total Quality Management

    Dr. Joseph M Juran included quality management as a component in strategic
    management. Juran asserted that all processes are prone to error and, thus,
    a critical activity in quality management is to focus on the rate of errors
    in a process. His work brought focus especially on quality planning, quality
    control and quality improvement.
    Juran Trilogy: Quality Planning

    Philip B. Crosby agreed with Juran that quality management was a management
    and strategic priority. He spoke about “Do It Right the First Time”,
    although he also asserted that there will always be limits to — or deviations
    from — the quality of a process. His is known especially for methods of quality
    Philip Crosby: Zero Defects

    Pioneers of Quality
    Pioneers of Quality
    the Early Pioneers of Quality Management

    Also see
    Theories of Management


    Some Common QM Approaches

    When choosing the best QMS for your organization, it is important to be aware
    of the various different approaches that it can take. The number of approaches,
    methods and tools continues to expand as more organizations strive to acquire,
    satisfy and retain their customers. The following list of some of the most common
    approaches is a good place to begin thinking about possible approaches. An upcoming
    section will give more guidelines about how to select the best approach for
    your organization. (Literature about quality management uses various different
    terms, such as approaches, philosophies, methods and tools, to refer to activities
    to manage quality in organizations. This section resorts to the term “approaches”.)

    Balanced Scorecard

    The Balanced Scorecard is a performance management approach that focuses on
    various overall performance indicators, often including customer perspective,
    internal-business processes, and learning and growth and financials, in order
    to monitor progress toward organization’s strategic goals. Each major unit throughout
    the organization often establishes its own scorecard which, in turn, is integrated
    with the scorecards of other units to achieve the scorecard of the overall organization.

    Overall, the Balanced Scorecard can be used to accomplish stronger alignment
    between all of the major operations in an organization, as well as more effective
    and efficient accomplishment of strategic goals. It can also result in increased
    efficiencies and productivity, which, in turn, can reduce costs and increase

    A major benefit of the Balanced Scorecard is that it can provide a set of dashboards,
    or key indicators, that can be used very effectively to monitor the performance
    of various internal functions, as well as the overall organization.
    Global Balanced Scorecard

    Balanced Scorecard

    Business Performance Management
    (concise overview)

    Ap-institute: What is a Balanced Scorecard?
    tools – Balanced Scorecard

    11: The Balanced Scorecard


    Benchmarking is the use of certain measurements to compare the quality and
    performance of an organization, major activity or general process to another
    similar one in order to make conclusions about the quality and performance.
    Thus, benchmarking can be used in a wide variety of different approaches to
    quality where measurements are involved. Benchmarks can be used, for example,
    to compare the quality of two similar types of cars made by different manufacturers
    or to compare the quality of a certain product or service to an industry standard.

    There are different types of benchmarks, for example, internal benchmarks to
    compare different internal processes, such as the quality of technical support
    in the sales versus the engineering departments. There is also competitive benchmarking
    to make comparisons between competitors, such as the quality of their products
    or services. There is also functional benchmarking to compare the quality of
    a function, such as strategic planning, to a set of best practices for that
    What is Benchmarking?
    American Quality and Productivity

    Benchmarking Exchange
    Benchmarking overview

    Business Process Reengineering (BPR)

    This approach aims to increase organizational performance by radically re-designing
    the organization’s structures and processes, including by starting over from
    the ground up. It includes extensive analysis of the various processes across
    the organization, and analyzing them for effectiveness and efficiencies.

    Although the activities of BPR can be quite detailed, complex and challenging,
    the benefits can be many. Similar to the Balanced Scorecard, BPR can also be
    used to accomplish stronger alignment between all of the major operations in
    an organization, as well as more effective and efficient accomplishment of strategic
    goals. It also can be used for increased efficiencies and productivity, which,
    in turn, can reduce costs and increase profits. Also, for nonprofits, it can
    be used to increase impact in the community. (BPR is a form of transformational
    organizational change.)
    Process Re-Engineering

    BPR OnLine Learning Center
    for reengineering and change management teams

    Project Management Approach for Business Process Improvement
    tools – Business Process Reengineering

    Also consider
    Process Management Vs Business Process Reengineering
    Process Reengineering Vs Business Process Optimisation

    Continuous Improvement (Process Improvement)

    Continuous improvement focuses on improving quality and customer satisfaction
    through continuous and incremental improvements to various internal processes,
    including by removing unnecessary activities and variations.

    The benefits of implementing continuous improvement are similar to those of
    other methods of quality management. Benefits can include increased quality,
    productivity and sales, as well as employee satisfaction. It can decrease waste,
    costs and employee turnover.

    Proponents of continuous improvement point out that the benefit of the method
    is that it forms a comprehensive, detailed approach to process improvement –
    not a reactive, hit-or-miss approach. It also can be implemented in increments,
    rather than in a much more challenging and radical transformation of the entire
    Big Dog’s Continuous Process Improvement Page
    The Continuous Improvement Companion
    The Right CEO Personality for Process Improvement
    the Disruption of Process Change

    the Religions of Process Improvement

    Failure Mode and Effects Analysis

    Failure Mode and Effects Analysis can improve quality and reliability, especially
    by focusing on ways in which the use of a particular product can fail. For each
    likely or detected failure, its effects are identified, especially in terms
    of how they might affect the customers, for example, injury, poor performance,
    noise or odors. Likely causes are identified, as well.

    A comprehensive FMEA process will associate a probability of each failure actually
    occurring, and will clarify recommended actions regarding how each failure can
    be avoided, along with who has responsibility for enacting those actions and

    FMEA is usually applied early in the development phases of the product so that
    later stages of development can be used to solve any problems that were discovered.
    FMEA is applied particularly with complex designs, such as mechanical and electrical

    There are different types of FMEA, depending on the focus of where quality
    and reliability need to be improved. Types include: system, design, process,
    service and software. Effective use of FMEA can result in increased quality,
    reliability and safety, and can reduce the likelihood of recurring changes to
    Failure Mode and Effects

    Failure Mode, Effects and Criticality Analysis
    Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA)

    Failure Modes
    and Effects Analysis (FMEA)


    ISO 9000 is a set of internationally recognized standards in quality management.
    ISO9001 is a well-known standard within that set and over one million organizations
    use it. ISO9000 builds on the continuous improvement approach to quality. The
    ISO quality standards are so comprehensive and well-known that they are often
    the foundation in a quality management system upon which other quality management
    methods are placed.

    A big advantage is that the set of standards can be customized and applied
    to any type of organization, including service organizations. It focuses especially
    on the integration of the various functions ranging from developing products
    and services to ensuing strong satisfaction among those who use them. Organizations
    can apply to be audited to earn ISO 9000 certification.

    The standard is based on sever highly integrated principles of quality management,
    including: customer focus, leadership, engagement of people, process approach,
    improvement, evidence-based decision making and relationship management.
    9001-2000: What to expect (article about new standards and how to implement

    ISO Standards Translated Into
    Plain English

    ISO homepage, English,
    with graphics

    Welcome to ISO Easy!
    Basics of ISO 9001 Tutorial


    Kaizen is a continuous improvement program. Kaizen in Japanese means “change
    for the better.” This is a powerful definition of Kaizen: “KAIZEN™
    means improvement. Moreover, it means continuing improvement in personal life,
    home life, social life, and working life. When applied to the workplace KAIZEN™
    means continuing improvement involving everyone – managers and workers
    alike.” Masaaki
    Imai, Founder of Kaizen Institute

    Kaizen is often described as a philosophy rather than an approach to quality
    management. It is a practice of continuously seeking opportunities to improve
    work processes and making small, continuous changes instead of radical and transformational
    ones. In an organization implementing Kaizen, everyone in the organization is
    trained on Kaizen and implements the practices. So Kaizen is not an expensive
    set of practices, as much as a long-term set of continuous practices made by
    everyone in the organization, resulting in large and lost-lasting change.

    Kaizen Institute
    Definition – What is a
    Kaizen Event?
    Kaizen with Six Sigma Ensures Continuous Improvement

    Lean Management

    Lean management is a continuous improvement approach to quality management
    process that focuses on maximizing customer value while reducing waste. The
    approach focuses first on clarifying what customers value, and then eliminating
    waste toward producing products and services that are proven to provide that

    Any activity or process that consumes resources, adds cost or time without
    creating value becomes the target for elimination. Each step in the business
    process is mapped and analyzed for waste. Waste could include, for example,
    unused or unneeded materials, transportation or other activities, as well as
    unnecessary delays and defective parts.

    Lean management also focuses on continuously improving especially all of the
    people, materials and activities, especially those that directly contribute
    to producing products and services to customers. A hallmark of lean management
    is that it encourages shared responsibility and shared leadership, as well as
    respecting people and continuous improvement.
    Lean Management
    How to Apply Lean Management Principles
    Lean Leadership Principles
    What is Lean?
    Lean Management vs Traditional Management
    for Fast Lean Transformation

    Quality Circles

    A quality circle is a small group of employees who meet regularly with their
    manager to analyze problems in their activities and to make recommendations
    to improve them. Ideally, the employees implement the recommendations themselves.
    Ideally, the employees reflect and learn about how to avoid those types of problems
    in the future.

    Another benefit is that the circles can help employees to think about their
    activities, especially from the perspectives of their customers. The circles
    also can cultivate strong team building among those who work together to develop
    and delivery products and services to their customers, whether customers are
    internal or external to the organization.

    Another major benefit of quality circles is that they can be much less expensive
    than other approaches to quality management because they usually require much
    less initial consultation and training to implement.
    Circle-Problem Solving Steps
    Simple Steps to Implementing Quality Circles
    Circles After the Fad
    Quality Circle

    Six Sigma

    Six Sigma is a quality management approach that takes a very data-driven, methodological
    approach to eliminating defects, particularly — but not only — in mass production
    of standardized products. Six Sigma builds on the continuous improvement approach
    to quality.

    Its aim to reach six standard deviations from the desired target of quality.
    Six standard deviations means 3.4 defects per million. A defect is defined as
    any unit that does not meet the specified level of satisfaction for the customer.

    Six Sigma uses a problem-solving framework commonly referred to as DMAIC: Define,
    Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control. Six Sigma is sometime combined with the
    Lean management approach to quality management, and is focused on not only detecting
    and solving problems, but on avoiding them in the first place. Six Sigma also
    puts strong focus on well-designed planning and implementation, including careful
    specification of roles (or “belts”) in the planning and implementation

    Six Sigma is beginning to be adopted world-wide as more organizations realize
    that it can be used in more applications than highly technical, mass production.
    Like TQM and other quality initiatives, Six Sigma includes tools used to drive
    down defects, improve quality and profits, and thus, morale and profitability.
    What is Six Sigma?
    Six Sigma

    History and Evolution of Six Sigma
    articles, case studies, etc., regarding Six Sigma

    Six Sigma Forum
    Why Six Sigma DMAIC Problem Solving Always Works
    How to Start Six Sigma Process Mapping

    Total Quality Management

    Total Quality Improvement (TQM) is a set of management practices throughout
    the organization, and is geared to ensure the organization consistently meets
    or exceeds customer requirements. TQM builds on the continuous improvement approach
    to quality.

    Like Lean management and Six Sigma, the TQM approach focuses not only on manufacturing,
    but on the processes across departments that are geared to meeting or exceeding
    customers’ expectations.

    Total Quality Management has become so widely used that the phrase is sometimes
    used interchangeably with
    ” quality management”. As a result of TQM’s focus on the entire process
    to meet customers’ needs, there have been various related phrases, such as Total
    Involvement of Employees and Total Customer Focus
    Important Principles of Total Quality Management

    Between Re-Engineering and TQM?
    What Is Total Quality Management?
    A Large Collection of Total Quality Management Tools
    Deming Total Quality Management Philosophy

    Additional Lists of Approaches to Quality Management

    There are numerous types of quality management approaches, and their number
    seems to increase. Because most of the approaches are automated by using quality
    management system software, the types of approaches are often referred to by
    their types of software.

    of Quality Management Systems
    Management Tools

    of Quality Management Systems
    Management Tools – Including TQM, Six Sigma, Cost of Quality and EFQM

    Useful Tools in Quality Management

    There are a variety of tools that are useful across many of the different approaches
    to quality management in organizations, including;

    Bar Charts
    Cause and Effect


    Control Charts

    Plot Charts

    Matrix Analysis
    Pareto Charts
    Process Mapping

    Process Control

    Tools for Process Improvement


    Develop Your QMS Team

    The planning and implementation of a quality management system requires sufficient
    time, energy and expertise, as well as a variety of different perspectives.
    That means a well-qualified and designed QMS Team of the most suitable members from
    your organization. The QMS Team would make recommendations to management about,
    for example:

    • Goals for the quality management system
    • Metrics to measure progress toward the goals
    • The best approaches to train employees about quality management
    • Criteria to select the best quality management system
    • The best quality management system that meets the criteria

    It is best to draft a job description for the QMS Team to be used when explaining
    the QMS Team’s role to upper management and suggesting who should be on
    it. The description also gives guidance and direction to the QMS Team as its
    doing its job. It is often best, as well, to train the members of the QMS Team
    about quality management. That might suggest hiring an expert to do that training,
    as well as to being a resource to the QMS Team as it does its job.
    to Choose Your Quality Management Team
    Skills Your Quality Management Team Needs to Have

    Strategies of High Performance Quality Management Teams

    Also see

    Performance Management

    Establish Quality Management Goals

    Identify Relevant Organizational Goals

    Your organization should have done strategic planning to clarify its overall
    purpose and priorities for the coming years. Ideally, the planning was done
    proactively and explicitly. The priorities are usually specified in terms of
    strategic goals.

    Which of those goals are related to the activities of QMS? For example, does
    your organization want to increase performance among teams and employees? Reduce
    overall costs in producing products and services? Maximize overall quality?
    Strategic Planning
    How to Do to Planning
    and Objectives Should Be SMARTER

    Identify QMS Goals and Align with Organizational Goals

    From referencing your organizational goals, how can your QMS help to achieve
    those goals? For example, can your QMS increase quality by reducing waste (for
    example, unused or unneeded materials, delays during activities, etc.), defective
    parts, defective frequencies, customer returns and/or costs? Or to increase
    the production rate and speed of distribution? Or to improve employee and team
    performance? Or to improve customer service, satisfaction and retention? Your
    answers to those questions can directly suggest what your QMS goals should be.

    Planning and Operational Planning

    Action Plans & Alignment

    Be Realistic In Your Planning

    Especially if yours is a small to medium-sized organization, or if this is
    your first time in being focused and intentional about quality management, then
    be very realistic about what you can accomplish. Develop a plan with various
    phases to be implemented over a realistic period of time. Build in some quick
    accomplishments in order to sustain excitement and motivation to implement the
    plan. Be willing to change the plan while implementing your quality management
    during its first year.
    Metrics Every Quality Exec Should Monitor & How to Calculate Them
    5 Must Have Quality Management Metrics for the Executive Dashboard
    of Service Quality

    to Create and Deploy Effective Metrics
    What are
    Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) and Why You Should Use Them

    is a KPI? Measure Your Performance Against Key Business Objectives

    Also see
    How to
    Do to Planning

    Decide What
    Organizational Design Changes Are Needed?

    A conventional rule in deciding the structure of something is “form follows
    function.” In other words, the structure of the organization (its design
    and roles) should be to what is most useful in implementing the organization’s
    functions (its goals and methods to achieve those goals).

    So what departments, teams and employees are now — and should be — involved
    in quality management, including to use the QMS software? What goals should
    each department, team and various employees have in QMS? What SMART objectives
    should be associated with each goal?
    Structures and Design
    Design and Job Design

    How to Know What
    Positions and Jobs Are Needed

    Select Your Approach to QM

    Of course, your QMS Team’s selection of which approach to use in your quality management
    system (for example, TQM, Lean, Six Sigma, etc.) to implement should be done
    very carefully. Your QMS Team should specify the requirements of the system and
    then rate various quality management approaches against those criteria. Consider
    the following two sets of selection criteria. Your QMS Team might modify or combine
    them to develop your own set.

    Top-Level Set of Selection Criteria

    This article How
    to Choose a Continuous Improvement Approach
    suggests these selection
    criteria. (It also compares Business Process Reengineering, TQM, Six Sigma and
    Lean management against those criteria.)

    • Expert-led?
    • Total employee involvement?
    • Addresses social aspect of work?
    • Concept of value-added versus waste?
    • Flow is a must?
    • Relies on information technology?
    • Prescribes improvement tools?
    • Daily management model?
    • Rapid improvement methods?

    Detailed Set of Selection Criteria

    This article Selecting
    Quality Management and
    Improvement Initiatives
    (p. 203) suggests a comprehensive and categorized
    set of selection criteria. The criteria are included in rows in a table, and
    each types of considered quality management approach is listed in columns in
    the table. Then each approach is rated according to how well it compares to
    the other approaches regarding each criterion, for example of a rating of “1”
    as very low to “5” as very high.

    1. Strategic Fit – Cost? Quality? Speed? Dependability? Flexibility?
    2. Pay-Offs – Shareholder/Stakeholder benefits? Company performance? Marketing
      performance? Customer satisfaction? Human resources? Process improvement?
      Organizations benefits?
    3. Organizational Fit – Company capability and readiness? Achievement possibility?
      National and organizational culture? Commitment from top? Infrastructure?
    4. Fashion – Follow best practices competitors, books, journals?
    5. Suggested by consultants and expert?
    6. Follow fashions?

    Key Questions
    to Ask Before Selecting a Solution to a Business Problem

    Select Your Approach to Quality Management

    After your QMS Team has reviewed the above sets of selection, you might review
    the various approaches in Approaches to Quality Management
    and determine if a particular approach seems most likely to meet your criteria.

    Select Your Quality Management Software

    Questions to Consider When Specifying Your Software Requirements

    lists a variety of questions to consider, including:

    1. Is it suitable for your size of organization?
    2. Are the any limitations to the number of users?
    3. Is it easy to use?
    4. Is the interface accessible to your other computer systems?
    5. What are its security features against attacks?
    6. Is it easy to integrate with other solutions that you already use?
    7. Is the software affordable and fits in your budget?

    You should also consider:

    1. What type of QMS software do you need?
    2. What type of technical support does the vendor provide? How reliable is
    3. Does the vendor provide training?
    4. Do they include a careful manual for implementing the software?
    5. Does the vendor provide demonstrations that your employees can experience?
    6. What are some of its customers saying about the software?

    Specify the Requirements for the Software

    Now you are ready to specify what you want the QMS software to accomplish for
    you. It is best to write a software requirements specification (SRS), while
    focusing now on the needs of your organization, and not on the particular software
    tool that you might already prefer. Later on, you will take your list of specifications
    to the various QMS software vendors for you to carefully decide if their software
    will indeed meet your organization’s needs.
    to Create an SRS for CRM
    CRM Software
    Requirements for Your Business
    to Define Your CRM Software Requirements

    Requirements Example Document
    Levels of CRM Requirements
    Your CRM Requirements

    Now Select the Best Software For Your Needs

    You are in a great position now to begin working with various vendors to get
    the best software to meet your needs, as specified in your SRS. You might include
    your specification in an overall Request for Proposal (RFP). You also might
    bring the members of your Implementation Team with you when talking to the vendors.

    Guidelines to Selecting QMS Software

    Selecting Tools
    for Software Quality Management
    Guide for Quality Management System Software
    to Select the Best Quality Management Software
    Things to Consider When Selecting Quality Management Software
    Simple Rules for Selecting a Quality Management Software System
    Things to Know Before Selecting a Quality Management Software Vendor

    Reviews / Comparison of QMS Software

    Management Software
    Quality Management
    Management Software for Small Business
    the Best Quality Management Software? We Reviewed 6 Platforms
    Management Software – No User License Fee


    Redesign Your Organization As Needed
    for QMS

    Consider the goals and objectives that you established during the QMS planning
    for each department, team and employee associated with customer relationship
    management. What teams and roles should exist? How should they be integrated
    with each other? For example, which departments, teams and employees should
    be collaborating with each other and how? What organizational design would best
    facilitate that type of involvement and collaboration?

    for Successful Organizational Change

    Understanding Organizational
    Structures and Design

    or Reorganizing an Organization and Its Employees

    All of the activities within an organization occur within the context of organizational
    performance management. Thus, having a basic understanding of that overall process
    will also give you an understanding of the major recurring activities in an
    organization and the general order in which they occur.
    Organizational Performance Management

    Begin Cultivating a Quality Management

    Great quality management is a mindset. It is a way of thinking, prioritizing
    and planning about quality in an organization. It guides how decisions are made
    and how problems are solved regarding quality. When many people in an organization
    have that mindset, then the organization has a quality culture. Research shows
    that long-lasting, successful change in an organization usually requires a change
    in its culture. Unless the culture begins to change, it does not matter how
    much advice and many tools that the organization gets. A change in culture will
    determine whether they are actually used or not.
    Culture of Quality:
    Self-Assessment Tool
    Elements of a QI Culture
    a Culture of Quality
    to Create a Culture of Quality Improvement
    a Culture of Quality

    Also see

    Team Building

    Also see

    Team Building

    Delegate QMS Goals to Teams and Employees

    Consider the QMS goals and associated objectives that you decided during the
    planning. Which goals should be delegated to which teams and employees? Make
    sure that you make the assignments according to the team performance management
    and employee performance management practices that are formally established
    in your personnel policies.
    Setting with Employees — What Should Employees Work On?
    Performance Management: Performance Planning Phase (Assigning Goals

    Also see

    Train Your Employees About Quality Management

    Operating a high-quality quality management system requires well developed
    knowledge and expertise among employees. Depending on the employees role in
    the system, required skills can planning, organizing, leading and coordinating
    resources. It can include supervising, communicating and evaluating. It can
    include planning, monitoring, measuring and analyzing. Therefore, arrange highly
    practical trainings for your employees — trainings that match their busy schedules
    and trainings that include practice sessions.
    Employee Training is Essential for Any Quality Management System
    Control Training for Small to Medium Businesses
    for Developing a Training Program for Quality Systems
    the Benefits of Quality: Employee Training and Incentives
    Tactics to Engage Employees With Quality

    Also see
    Training and Development

    Also see
    Training and Development

    Also see

    Team Building


    Manage Your QMS Teams and Employees

    You have already done the phases of setting goals and delegating them to the
    appropriate teams and employees. Remaining tasks are to monitor and measure
    progress toward those goals, implement performance improvement methods where
    needed, and reward/compensate teams and employees accordingly.

    Performance management of teams:
    Performance Management: Performance Appraisal / Evaluation
    Performance Management: Development (Improvement) Planning Phase

    Performance management of employees:
    and Receiving Feedback

    Performance (Performance Appraisals)


    Performance Problems

    Improvement/Development Plans


    Additional practices

    Ensure all necessary collaborations are occurring among teams and stakeholders,
    for example, cross-collaborations between departments, teams and employees involved
    in quality management activities. Also, monitor and evaluate the achievement
    of team and employee QM-related goals, and report the progress toward achieving
    the organizational and QM goals.

    Also see
    is Supervision? How Do I Supervise?

    Manage Your QMS Software

    The management activities specific to the QMS system include, for example to:

    • Develop useful written procedures about managing and using the QMS system.
    • Update the content in the QMS software, for example, adding and modifying
      current contents from the relevant departments, teams and employees.
    • Manage the QMS software, for example, doing backups and upgrading the versions
      as necessary.

    Audit Your QMS System

    “Auditing is defined as the on-site verification activity, such as inspection
    or examination, of a process or quality system, to ensure compliance to requirements.
    An audit can apply to an entire organization or might be specific to a function,
    process, or production step. ” – American
    Society of Quality
    An audit is an assessment of activities and results against
    a set of specific requirements. Thus, you should audit:

    • The functioning of the software to ensure it is indeed meeting the specifications
      that you designed when selecting the software.
    • The results of the overall quality management activities in order to assess
      the impact of its contribution to achieving the overall goals of the organization,
      as well as the goals of the QMS. (Various metrics for the measurement of the
      QMS were listed in the previous section Establish
      Quality Management Goals
      . Metrics are listed below, as well.)

    Effective is Your Quality Management Process?
    Practice Report: 8 Key Areas for Measuring Quality Effectively
    Quality Key Performance Indicators You Should Be Tracking

    To Measure Service Quality
    9 Practical
    Methods for Measuring Service Quality
    and Improving Service Quality

    Example of a Quality Audit Procedure

    Be sure to use the learning from your evaluation activities to improve the
    next round of the planning of your QMS system. In that way, you are indeed treating
    your QMS as a recurring system of integrated and tightly aligned activities.

    Also see
    to Design Successful Evaluation and Assessment Plans

    General Resources

    Additional Overviews

    Ultimate Guide to Quality Management Systems


    American Society for Quality’s “Certification
    Pathway Tool”
    (lists of numerous certifications)


    Quality Concepts
    of Quality Management Terms
    Quality Glossary
    Free Training
    Programs About Quality Management


    American Society for Quality
    for Total Quality Management (ITQM)
    Organization for Standardization
    International Society for Performance Improvement
    International Society of Six Sigma Professionals:
    Kaizen Institute

    Learn More in the Library’s Blog Related to Quality Management

    In addition to the information on this current page, see the following blog
    which has posts related to this topic. Scan down the blog’s page to see various
    posts. Also see the section “Recent Blog Posts” in the sidebar of
    the blog or click on “next” near the bottom of a post in the blog.

    Quality Management Blog

    Also consider
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