Quality Management: Guidelines and Resources
Before reading this topic, you might read about the Relationship
Between Managing Supply Chain, Operations, Quality, Customer Relationships and
Sections in this Topic Include
Introduction to Quality Management
What is Quality Management?
We All Are Doing Quality Management
Quality Management in Organizations
Quality Is Best Managed as a System
More Terms in Quality Management
Pioneers in Organizational Quality Management
Approaches to Quality Management
Some Common Approaches to Quality Management
– Balanced Scorecard
– Business Process Reengineering
– Continuous Improvement (Process Improvement)
– Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
– Lean Management
– Quality Circles
– Six Sigma
– Total Quality Management
Additional Approaches to Quality Management
Useful Tools in Quality Management
Planning Your QMS
Developing Your QMS
Managing Your QMS
INTRODUCTION TO QUALITY MANAGEMENT
We tend to think of the activities in quality management as occurring primarily
in businesses, and especially in manufacturing. However, all of us are engaged
in quality management. Think of a certain time that you wanted to accomplish
something, for example, to achieve a certain goal or to provide an ongoing service.
You probably started by planning how to do it. Then you implemented your plan
to try it out for a while. Then you continued to notice changes that were needed
to improve it. Basically, you were doing quality management — you were continuing
to improve the quality of achieving the goal or of the service.
Perhaps you have worked for a supervisor in an organization. The supervisor
asserted certain goals that you were to achieve, as well as certain tasks that
you were to do. As you worked to do that, you and your supervisor monitored
how well you were doing your job. The supervisor might have shared feedback
about how you were doing, as well as some suggestions to make things better.
You might have had an annual performance appraisal meeting with the supervisor
in which you got an official rating of how well you do were doing. Those activities
are referred to as employee performance management. They are a form of quality
control — although the term “control” might have negative connotation
in that situation.
Here are some definitions of quality management in an organizational setting:
- “Quality management is the act of overseeing all activities and tasks
needed to maintain a desired level of excellence. This includes the determination
of a quality policy, creating and implementing quality planning and assurance,
and quality control and quality improvement.” Investopedia
- “Quality management” ensures superior quality products and services.
Quality of a product can be measured in terms of performance, reliability
and durability. Quality is a crucial parameter which differentiates an organization
from its competitors. Quality management tools ensure changes in the systems
and processes which eventually result in superior quality products and services.”
Management Study Guide
- “Quality management is the act of overseeing different activities and
tasks within an organization to ensure that products and services offered,
as well as the means used to achieve them, are consistent. It helps to achieve
and maintain a desired level of quality within the organization.” CFI
The activities of quality management are somewhat different between developing
and delivering products and services. A product is a tangible item, whereas
a service is intangible. Thus, products are easier to monitor and measure so
quality management of products is more straightforward to do. Services are more
difficult to measure because the quality depends on subjective matters such
as the quality of the relationship between the service provider and the customer.
A system is a recurring cycle of activities, including:
- Planning to determine goals and how they can be achieved, and
- Then developing and managing resources and activities to achieve those goals,
- Then evaluating whether the goals have been achieved or not, and
- Then using the learning from the evaluation to improve the quality of the
next round of planning.
Thus, a system is a recurring loop of components — in a continuous cycle of
improvement. Quality management is best done as a system; otherwise, the management
tends to be highly reactive and sporadic, often resulting in a patchwork of
disconnected and ineffective activities.
Again, we turn to the American
Society of Quality: “A quality management system (QMS) is defined as
a formalized system that documents processes, procedures, and responsibilities
for achieving quality policies and objectives. A QMS helps coordinate and direct
an organization’s activities to meet customer and regulatory requirements
and improve its effectiveness and efficiency on a continuous basis.”
There are a several quality-related terms, most of which sound similar to each
other, but that are somewhat different. These include:
Quality Assurance and Quality Control
Society for Quality distinguishes the difference. Quality assurance is “focused
on providing confidence that quality requirements will be fulfilled.” Quality
control is “more the inspection aspect of quality management” or “the
operational techniques and activities used to fulfill requirements for quality.”
writes that quality planning is for “identifying which quality standards
are relevant to the project and determining how to satisfy them”. So essentially
it is the process that specifies the measurable requirements and milestones
and for when they are to be achieved.
S. Department of Health and Human Services writes that “Quality improvement
(QI) consists of systematic and continuous actions that lead to measurable improvement
in health care services and the health status of targeted patient groups.”
W. Edwards Deming led the quality management in Japan after World War II. Today,
Japan stands as an example of the accomplishments and prestige that come from
producing high-quality products. He has been credited with starting the quality
movement in America. Deming frequently spoke about identifying “best practices”
in developing and providing an organization’s products. Those best practices
were to be integrated into a performance management system as standards against
which a current level of performance were to be measures.
Edwards Deming’s 14 Points for Total Quality Management
Dr. Joseph M Juran included quality management as a component in strategic
management. Juran asserted that all processes are prone to error and, thus,
a critical activity in quality management is to focus on the rate of errors
in a process. His work brought focus especially on quality planning, quality
control and quality improvement.
Juran Trilogy: Quality Planning
Philip B. Crosby agreed with Juran that quality management was a management
and strategic priority. He spoke about “Do It Right the First Time”,
although he also asserted that there will always be limits to — or deviations
from — the quality of a process. His is known especially for methods of quality
Philip Crosby: Zero Defects
Theories of Management
When choosing the best QMS for your organization, it is important to be aware
of the various different approaches that it can take. The number of approaches,
methods and tools continues to expand as more organizations strive to acquire,
satisfy and retain their customers. The following list of some of the most common
approaches is a good place to begin thinking about possible approaches. An upcoming
section will give more guidelines about how to select the best approach for
your organization. (Literature about quality management uses various different
terms, such as approaches, philosophies, methods and tools, to refer to activities
to manage quality in organizations. This section resorts to the term “approaches”.)
The Balanced Scorecard is a performance management approach that focuses on
various overall performance indicators, often including customer perspective,
internal-business processes, and learning and growth and financials, in order
to monitor progress toward organization’s strategic goals. Each major unit throughout
the organization often establishes its own scorecard which, in turn, is integrated
with the scorecards of other units to achieve the scorecard of the overall organization.
Overall, the Balanced Scorecard can be used to accomplish stronger alignment
between all of the major operations in an organization, as well as more effective
and efficient accomplishment of strategic goals. It can also result in increased
efficiencies and productivity, which, in turn, can reduce costs and increase
A major benefit of the Balanced Scorecard is that it can provide a set of dashboards,
or key indicators, that can be used very effectively to monitor the performance
of various internal functions, as well as the overall organization.
Global Balanced Scorecard
Business Performance Management
Ap-institute: What is a Balanced Scorecard?
tools – Balanced Scorecard
11: The Balanced Scorecard
Benchmarking is the use of certain measurements to compare the quality and
performance of an organization, major activity or general process to another
similar one in order to make conclusions about the quality and performance.
Thus, benchmarking can be used in a wide variety of different approaches to
quality where measurements are involved. Benchmarks can be used, for example,
to compare the quality of two similar types of cars made by different manufacturers
or to compare the quality of a certain product or service to an industry standard.
There are different types of benchmarks, for example, internal benchmarks to
compare different internal processes, such as the quality of technical support
in the sales versus the engineering departments. There is also competitive benchmarking
to make comparisons between competitors, such as the quality of their products
or services. There is also functional benchmarking to compare the quality of
a function, such as strategic planning, to a set of best practices for that
What is Benchmarking?
American Quality and Productivity
This approach aims to increase organizational performance by radically re-designing
the organization’s structures and processes, including by starting over from
the ground up. It includes extensive analysis of the various processes across
the organization, and analyzing them for effectiveness and efficiencies.
Although the activities of BPR can be quite detailed, complex and challenging,
the benefits can be many. Similar to the Balanced Scorecard, BPR can also be
used to accomplish stronger alignment between all of the major operations in
an organization, as well as more effective and efficient accomplishment of strategic
goals. It also can be used for increased efficiencies and productivity, which,
in turn, can reduce costs and increase profits. Also, for nonprofits, it can
be used to increase impact in the community. (BPR is a form of transformational
BPR OnLine Learning Center
for reengineering and change management teams
Project Management Approach for Business Process Improvement
tools – Business Process Reengineering
Continuous improvement focuses on improving quality and customer satisfaction
through continuous and incremental improvements to various internal processes,
including by removing unnecessary activities and variations.
The benefits of implementing continuous improvement are similar to those of
other methods of quality management. Benefits can include increased quality,
productivity and sales, as well as employee satisfaction. It can decrease waste,
costs and employee turnover.
Proponents of continuous improvement point out that the benefit of the method
is that it forms a comprehensive, detailed approach to process improvement –
not a reactive, hit-or-miss approach. It also can be implemented in increments,
rather than in a much more challenging and radical transformation of the entire
Big Dog’s Continuous Process Improvement Page
The Continuous Improvement Companion
The Right CEO Personality for Process Improvement
the Disruption of Process Change
the Religions of Process Improvement
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis can improve quality and reliability, especially
by focusing on ways in which the use of a particular product can fail. For each
likely or detected failure, its effects are identified, especially in terms
of how they might affect the customers, for example, injury, poor performance,
noise or odors. Likely causes are identified, as well.
A comprehensive FMEA process will associate a probability of each failure actually
occurring, and will clarify recommended actions regarding how each failure can
be avoided, along with who has responsibility for enacting those actions and
FMEA is usually applied early in the development phases of the product so that
later stages of development can be used to solve any problems that were discovered.
FMEA is applied particularly with complex designs, such as mechanical and electrical
There are different types of FMEA, depending on the focus of where quality
and reliability need to be improved. Types include: system, design, process,
service and software. Effective use of FMEA can result in increased quality,
reliability and safety, and can reduce the likelihood of recurring changes to
Failure Mode and Effects
Failure Mode, Effects and Criticality Analysis
Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA)
and Effects Analysis (FMEA)
ISO 9000 is a set of internationally recognized standards in quality management.
ISO9001 is a well-known standard within that set and over one million organizations
use it. ISO9000 builds on the continuous improvement approach to quality. The
ISO quality standards are so comprehensive and well-known that they are often
the foundation in a quality management system upon which other quality management
methods are placed.
A big advantage is that the set of standards can be customized and applied
to any type of organization, including service organizations. It focuses especially
on the integration of the various functions ranging from developing products
and services to ensuing strong satisfaction among those who use them. Organizations
can apply to be audited to earn ISO 9000 certification.
The standard is based on sever highly integrated principles of quality management,
including: customer focus, leadership, engagement of people, process approach,
improvement, evidence-based decision making and relationship management.
9001-2000: What to expect (article about new standards and how to implement
ISO Standards Translated Into
ISO homepage, English,
Welcome to ISO Easy!
Basics of ISO 9001 Tutorial
Kaizen is a continuous improvement program. Kaizen in Japanese means “change
for the better.” This is a powerful definition of Kaizen: “KAIZEN™
means improvement. Moreover, it means continuing improvement in personal life,
home life, social life, and working life. When applied to the workplace KAIZEN™
means continuing improvement involving everyone – managers and workers
Imai, Founder of Kaizen Institute
Kaizen is often described as a philosophy rather than an approach to quality
management. It is a practice of continuously seeking opportunities to improve
work processes and making small, continuous changes instead of radical and transformational
ones. In an organization implementing Kaizen, everyone in the organization is
trained on Kaizen and implements the practices. So Kaizen is not an expensive
set of practices, as much as a long-term set of continuous practices made by
everyone in the organization, resulting in large and lost-lasting change.
Lean management is a continuous improvement approach to quality management
process that focuses on maximizing customer value while reducing waste. The
approach focuses first on clarifying what customers value, and then eliminating
waste toward producing products and services that are proven to provide that
Any activity or process that consumes resources, adds cost or time without
creating value becomes the target for elimination. Each step in the business
process is mapped and analyzed for waste. Waste could include, for example,
unused or unneeded materials, transportation or other activities, as well as
unnecessary delays and defective parts.
Lean management also focuses on continuously improving especially all of the
people, materials and activities, especially those that directly contribute
to producing products and services to customers. A hallmark of lean management
is that it encourages shared responsibility and shared leadership, as well as
respecting people and continuous improvement.
How to Apply Lean Management Principles
Lean Leadership Principles
What is Lean?
Lean Management vs Traditional Management
for Fast Lean Transformation
A quality circle is a small group of employees who meet regularly with their
manager to analyze problems in their activities and to make recommendations
to improve them. Ideally, the employees implement the recommendations themselves.
Ideally, the employees reflect and learn about how to avoid those types of problems
in the future.
Another benefit is that the circles can help employees to think about their
activities, especially from the perspectives of their customers. The circles
also can cultivate strong team building among those who work together to develop
and delivery products and services to their customers, whether customers are
internal or external to the organization.
Another major benefit of quality circles is that they can be much less expensive
than other approaches to quality management because they usually require much
less initial consultation and training to implement.
Circle-Problem Solving Steps
Simple Steps to Implementing Quality Circles
Circles After the Fad
Six Sigma is a quality management approach that takes a very data-driven, methodological
approach to eliminating defects, particularly — but not only — in mass production
of standardized products. Six Sigma builds on the continuous improvement approach
Its aim to reach six standard deviations from the desired target of quality.
Six standard deviations means 3.4 defects per million. A defect is defined as
any unit that does not meet the specified level of satisfaction for the customer.
Six Sigma uses a problem-solving framework commonly referred to as DMAIC: Define,
Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control. Six Sigma is sometime combined with the
Lean management approach to quality management, and is focused on not only detecting
and solving problems, but on avoiding them in the first place. Six Sigma also
puts strong focus on well-designed planning and implementation, including careful
specification of roles (or “belts”) in the planning and implementation
Six Sigma is beginning to be adopted world-wide as more organizations realize
that it can be used in more applications than highly technical, mass production.
Like TQM and other quality initiatives, Six Sigma includes tools used to drive
down defects, improve quality and profits, and thus, morale and profitability.
What is Six Sigma?
History and Evolution of Six Sigma
articles, case studies, etc., regarding Six Sigma
Six Sigma Forum
Why Six Sigma DMAIC Problem Solving Always Works
How to Start Six Sigma Process Mapping
Total Quality Improvement (TQM) is a set of management practices throughout
the organization, and is geared to ensure the organization consistently meets
or exceeds customer requirements. TQM builds on the continuous improvement approach
Like Lean management and Six Sigma, the TQM approach focuses not only on manufacturing,
but on the processes across departments that are geared to meeting or exceeding
Total Quality Management has become so widely used that the phrase is sometimes
used interchangeably with
” quality management”. As a result of TQM’s focus on the entire process
to meet customers’ needs, there have been various related phrases, such as Total
Involvement of Employees and Total Customer Focus
Important Principles of Total Quality Management
Between Re-Engineering and TQM?.
What Is Total Quality Management?
A Large Collection of Total Quality Management Tools
Deming Total Quality Management Philosophy
There are numerous types of quality management approaches, and their number
seems to increase. Because most of the approaches are automated by using quality
management system software, the types of approaches are often referred to by
their types of software.
There are a variety of tools that are useful across many of the different approaches
to quality management in organizations, including;
• Bar Charts
• Cause and Effect
• Control Charts
• Matrix Analysis
• Pareto Charts
• Process Mapping
PLANNING YOUR QMS
The planning and implementation of a quality management system requires sufficient
time, energy and expertise, as well as a variety of different perspectives.
That means a well-qualified and designed QMS Team of the most suitable members from
your organization. The QMS Team would make recommendations to management about,
- Goals for the quality management system
- Metrics to measure progress toward the goals
- The best approaches to train employees about quality management
- Criteria to select the best quality management system
- The best quality management system that meets the criteria
It is best to draft a job description for the QMS Team to be used when explaining
the QMS Team’s role to upper management and suggesting who should be on
it. The description also gives guidance and direction to the QMS Team as its
doing its job. It is often best, as well, to train the members of the QMS Team
about quality management. That might suggest hiring an expert to do that training,
as well as to being a resource to the QMS Team as it does its job.
to Choose Your Quality Management Team
Skills Your Quality Management Team Needs to Have
Strategies of High Performance Quality Management Teams
Identify Relevant Organizational Goals
Your organization should have done strategic planning to clarify its overall
purpose and priorities for the coming years. Ideally, the planning was done
proactively and explicitly. The priorities are usually specified in terms of
Which of those goals are related to the activities of QMS? For example, does
your organization want to increase performance among teams and employees? Reduce
overall costs in producing products and services? Maximize overall quality?
How to Do to Planning
and Objectives Should Be SMARTER
Identify QMS Goals and Align with Organizational Goals
From referencing your organizational goals, how can your QMS help to achieve
those goals? For example, can your QMS increase quality by reducing waste (for
example, unused or unneeded materials, delays during activities, etc.), defective
parts, defective frequencies, customer returns and/or costs? Or to increase
the production rate and speed of distribution? Or to improve employee and team
performance? Or to improve customer service, satisfaction and retention? Your
answers to those questions can directly suggest what your QMS goals should be.
Planning and Operational Planning
Action Plans & Alignment
Be Realistic In Your Planning
Especially if yours is a small to medium-sized organization, or if this is
your first time in being focused and intentional about quality management, then
be very realistic about what you can accomplish. Develop a plan with various
phases to be implemented over a realistic period of time. Build in some quick
accomplishments in order to sustain excitement and motivation to implement the
plan. Be willing to change the plan while implementing your quality management
during its first year.
Metrics Every Quality Exec Should Monitor & How to Calculate Them
5 Must Have Quality Management Metrics for the Executive Dashboard
of Service Quality
to Create and Deploy Effective Metrics
Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) and Why You Should Use Them
is a KPI? Measure Your Performance Against Key Business Objectives
Do to Planning
A conventional rule in deciding the structure of something is “form follows
function.” In other words, the structure of the organization (its design
and roles) should be to what is most useful in implementing the organization’s
functions (its goals and methods to achieve those goals).
So what departments, teams and employees are now — and should be — involved
in quality management, including to use the QMS software? What goals should
each department, team and various employees have in QMS? What SMART objectives
should be associated with each goal?
Structures and Design
Design and Job Design
How to Know What
Positions and Jobs Are Needed
Of course, your QMS Team’s selection of which approach to use in your quality management
system (for example, TQM, Lean, Six Sigma, etc.) to implement should be done
very carefully. Your QMS Team should specify the requirements of the system and
then rate various quality management approaches against those criteria. Consider
the following two sets of selection criteria. Your QMS Team might modify or combine
them to develop your own set.
Top-Level Set of Selection Criteria
This article How
to Choose a Continuous Improvement Approach suggests these selection
criteria. (It also compares Business Process Reengineering, TQM, Six Sigma and
Lean management against those criteria.)
- Total employee involvement?
- Addresses social aspect of work?
- Concept of value-added versus waste?
- Flow is a must?
- Relies on information technology?
- Prescribes improvement tools?
- Daily management model?
- Rapid improvement methods?
Detailed Set of Selection Criteria
This article Selecting
Quality Management and
Improvement Initiatives (p. 203) suggests a comprehensive and categorized
set of selection criteria. The criteria are included in rows in a table, and
each types of considered quality management approach is listed in columns in
the table. Then each approach is rated according to how well it compares to
the other approaches regarding each criterion, for example of a rating of “1”
as very low to “5” as very high.
- Strategic Fit – Cost? Quality? Speed? Dependability? Flexibility?
- Pay-Offs – Shareholder/Stakeholder benefits? Company performance? Marketing
performance? Customer satisfaction? Human resources? Process improvement?
- Organizational Fit – Company capability and readiness? Achievement possibility?
National and organizational culture? Commitment from top? Infrastructure?
- Fashion – Follow best practices competitors, books, journals?
- Suggested by consultants and expert?
- Follow fashions?
Select Your Approach to Quality Management
After your QMS Team has reviewed the above sets of selection, you might review
the various approaches in Approaches to Quality Management
and determine if a particular approach seems most likely to meet your criteria.
Questions to Consider When Specifying Your Software Requirements
lists a variety of questions to consider, including:
- Is it suitable for your size of organization?
- Are the any limitations to the number of users?
- Is it easy to use?
- Is the interface accessible to your other computer systems?
- What are its security features against attacks?
- Is it easy to integrate with other solutions that you already use?
- Is the software affordable and fits in your budget?
You should also consider:
- What type of QMS software do you need?
- What type of technical support does the vendor provide? How reliable is
- Does the vendor provide training?
- Do they include a careful manual for implementing the software?
- Does the vendor provide demonstrations that your employees can experience?
- What are some of its customers saying about the software?
Specify the Requirements for the Software
Now you are ready to specify what you want the QMS software to accomplish for
you. It is best to write a software requirements specification (SRS), while
focusing now on the needs of your organization, and not on the particular software
tool that you might already prefer. Later on, you will take your list of specifications
to the various QMS software vendors for you to carefully decide if their software
will indeed meet your organization’s needs.
to Create an SRS for CRM
Requirements for Your Business
to Define Your CRM Software Requirements
Now Select the Best Software For Your Needs
You are in a great position now to begin working with various vendors to get
the best software to meet your needs, as specified in your SRS. You might include
your specification in an overall Request for Proposal (RFP). You also might
bring the members of your Implementation Team with you when talking to the vendors.
Guidelines to Selecting QMS Software
for Software Quality Management
Guide for Quality Management System Software
to Select the Best Quality Management Software
Things to Consider When Selecting Quality Management Software
Simple Rules for Selecting a Quality Management Software System
Things to Know Before Selecting a Quality Management Software Vendor
Reviews / Comparison of QMS Software
Management Software for Small Business
the Best Quality Management Software? We Reviewed 6 Platforms
Management Software – No User License Fee
DEVELOPING YOUR QMS SYSTEM
Consider the goals and objectives that you established during the QMS planning
for each department, team and employee associated with customer relationship
management. What teams and roles should exist? How should they be integrated
with each other? For example, which departments, teams and employees should
be collaborating with each other and how? What organizational design would best
facilitate that type of involvement and collaboration?
All of the activities within an organization occur within the context of organizational
performance management. Thus, having a basic understanding of that overall process
will also give you an understanding of the major recurring activities in an
organization and the general order in which they occur.
Organizational Performance Management
Great quality management is a mindset. It is a way of thinking, prioritizing
and planning about quality in an organization. It guides how decisions are made
and how problems are solved regarding quality. When many people in an organization
have that mindset, then the organization has a quality culture. Research shows
that long-lasting, successful change in an organization usually requires a change
in its culture. Unless the culture begins to change, it does not matter how
much advice and many tools that the organization gets. A change in culture will
determine whether they are actually used or not.
Culture of Quality:
Elements of a QI Culture
a Culture of Quality
to Create a Culture of Quality Improvement
a Culture of Quality
Consider the QMS goals and associated objectives that you decided during the
planning. Which goals should be delegated to which teams and employees? Make
sure that you make the assignments according to the team performance management
and employee performance management practices that are formally established
in your personnel policies.
Setting with Employees — What Should Employees Work On?
Performance Management: Performance Planning Phase (Assigning Goals)
Operating a high-quality quality management system requires well developed
knowledge and expertise among employees. Depending on the employees role in
the system, required skills can planning, organizing, leading and coordinating
resources. It can include supervising, communicating and evaluating. It can
include planning, monitoring, measuring and analyzing. Therefore, arrange highly
practical trainings for your employees — trainings that match their busy schedules
and trainings that include practice sessions.
Employee Training is Essential for Any Quality Management System
Control Training for Small to Medium Businesses
for Developing a Training Program for Quality Systems
the Benefits of Quality: Employee Training and Incentives
Tactics to Engage Employees With Quality
Training and Development
Training and Development
MANAGING YOUR QMS SYSTEM
You have already done the phases of setting goals and delegating them to the
appropriate teams and employees. Remaining tasks are to monitor and measure
progress toward those goals, implement performance improvement methods where
needed, and reward/compensate teams and employees accordingly.
Performance management of teams:
Performance Management: Performance Appraisal / Evaluation
Performance Management: Development (Improvement) Planning Phase
Performance management of employees:
and Receiving Feedback
Performance (Performance Appraisals)
Ensure all necessary collaborations are occurring among teams and stakeholders,
for example, cross-collaborations between departments, teams and employees involved
in quality management activities. Also, monitor and evaluate the achievement
of team and employee QM-related goals, and report the progress toward achieving
the organizational and QM goals.
The management activities specific to the QMS system include, for example to:
- Develop useful written procedures about managing and using the QMS system.
- Update the content in the QMS software, for example, adding and modifying
current contents from the relevant departments, teams and employees.
- Manage the QMS software, for example, doing backups and upgrading the versions
“Auditing is defined as the on-site verification activity, such as inspection
or examination, of a process or quality system, to ensure compliance to requirements.
An audit can apply to an entire organization or might be specific to a function,
process, or production step. ” – American
Society of Quality An audit is an assessment of activities and results against
a set of specific requirements. Thus, you should audit:
- The functioning of the software to ensure it is indeed meeting the specifications
that you designed when selecting the software.
- The results of the overall quality management activities in order to assess
the impact of its contribution to achieving the overall goals of the organization,
as well as the goals of the QMS. (Various metrics for the measurement of the
QMS were listed in the previous section Establish
Quality Management Goals . Metrics are listed below, as well.)
Be sure to use the learning from your evaluation activities to improve the
next round of the planning of your QMS system. In that way, you are indeed treating
your QMS as a recurring system of integrated and tightly aligned activities.
American Society for Quality
for Total Quality Management (ITQM)
Organization for Standardization
International Society for Performance Improvement
International Society of Six Sigma Professionals:
Learn More in the Library’s Blog Related to Quality Management
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Related Library Topics
For the Category of Quality Management:
To round out your knowledge of this Library topic, you may
want to review some related topics, available from the link below.
Each of the related topics includes free, online resources.
Also, scan the Recommended Books listed below. They have been
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