What is Supervision? How Do I Supervise?

Sections of this topic

    What is Supervision? How Do I Supervise?

    Comprehensive, practical book by Carter McNamara


    Leadership and Supervision in Business - Book Cover

    The guidelines and resources in this topic are not sufficient to develop
    strong competencies in supervision. Those competencies come from extensive experience
    in applying that information.

    Sections of This Topic Include

    What is Supervision?
    To Truly Understand Supervision, Be Acquainted With Its
    Broad Content
    Know How Organizations Are Typically Structured and
    Operate

    Know Major Functions in Management in Organizations
    Know Which Leadership Approach to Use and When in
    Organizations
    Typical Roles in Supervision
    Advocate
    Boss
    Coach
    Facilitator
    Mentor
    Trainer

    Suggested Core Competencies to Supervise in Any Situation

    Staffing (Human Resource Management)
    Ensuring Conformance to Personnel Policies
    Designing Job Roles
    Ensuring Diversity and Inclusion
    Deciding Compensation and Benefits
    Recruiting Good Candidates
    Screening Job Candidates
    Hiring Employees
    Orienting Employees
    Retaining Employees
    Rewarding Employees

    Employee Performance Management
    Setting Goals
    Training Employees
    Leading Employees (Delegating, Coaching, Mentoring,
    etc.)
    Motivating Employees
    Sharing Feedback
    Performance Reviews
    Addressing Performance Problems
    Terminating Employees

    Team Performance Management
    Team Building
    Leading Teams
    Team Performance Planning
    Team Performance Reviews
    Team Improvement Planning

    Getting Started in Supervision

    Getting Started in Supervision
    Typical Experience of First-Time Supervisor
    Realities of Supervision
    Make Sure You Supervise Yourself
    How Can You Develop Your Supervisory Skills?

    Additional Resources

    Evaluation of Human Resource
    Management and Supervision Practices
    Free Basic Guide to Leadership and Supervision

    Also consider
    Related Library Topics

    Learn More in the Library’s Blogs Related to Supervision

    In addition to the articles on this current page, also see the following blogs
    that have posts related to Supervision. Scan down the blog’s page to see various
    posts. Also see the section “Recent Blog Posts” in the sidebar of
    the blog or click on “next” near the bottom of a post in the blog.
    The blog also links to numerous free related resources.

    Library’s Human
    Resources Blog

    Library’s Leadership Blog
    Library’s Supervision
    Blog

    Library’s Team Performance
    Blog


    What is Supervision?

    Supervision is a widely misunderstood term. Many people believe it applies
    only to people who oversee the productivity and development of entry-level workers.
    That’s not true.

    The term “supervisor” typically refers to one’s immediate
    superior in the workplace, that is, the person whom you report directly to in
    the organization. For example, a middle manager’s supervisor typically
    would be a top manager. A first-line manager’s supervisor would be a middle
    manager. A worker’s supervisor typically would be a first-line manager.

    Supervisors typically are responsible for their direct reports’ progress
    and productivity in the organization. Supervision often includes conducting
    basic management skills (decision making, problem solving, planning, delegation
    and meeting management), organizing teams, noticing the need for and designing
    new job roles in the group, hiring new employees, training new employees, employee
    performance management (setting goals, observing and giving feedback, addressing
    performance issues, firing employees, etc.) and ensuring conformance to personnel
    policies and other internal regulations. Supervisors typically have strong working
    knowledge of the activities in their group, e.g., how to develop their product,
    carry out their service, etc.
    What
    is the Meaning and Purpose of Supervision?
    What
    is Supervision?
    Supervision (Wikipedia)

    NOTE: Many people also use the term “supervisor”
    to designate the managerial position that is responsible for a major function
    in the organization, for example, Supervisor of Customer Service. This topic
    in the Library does not address that context of supervision, but rather addresses
    the context described in the above paragraphs.

    To Truly Understand Supervision, Be Acquainted
    With Its Broader Context

    Know How Organizations Are Typically Structured
    and Operate

    Without knowing about organizations in general, your role as a supervisor will
    be extremely limited. For example, perhaps the greatest affect on how you work
    and the success of your department is the culture of the organization. Supervisors
    should fully understand the mission and strategic goals of the organization.
    Also, the expectations, resources and influences to do your job usually come
    from other parts of the organization, whether it comes from the management levels
    above you or other departments that you serve. Collaboration between other departments
    in the organization is often one of the most effective ways for the departments
    to do their job. Your employees’ questions are often about other parts of the
    organization, as well. The likelihood of your promotion depends on how well
    you understand the rest of the organization. See
    Organizational Structures and Design

    Know Major Functions in Management
    in Organizations

    Traditionally, management is interpreted as be an integration of planning,
    organizing, leading and coordinating resources. The role of supervision is essentially
    a management role. For example, you are planning your department’s goals, how
    to reach those goals, the resources that you will need, and who will doing what
    and by when to achieve those goals. You will be organizing resources, including
    jobs, people, funding and facilities. You will be leading individuals and teams
    in your department. You will be continually coordinating your department’s activities
    to make sure that activities are being conducted as planned. You will take measures
    to get things back on track when needed. Therefore, it is very important that
    you understand best practices in management. Those practices are often quite
    similar across the organization, but just of a different scope and impact. See
    What is Management?
    How Do I Manage?

    Know Which Leadership Approach to
    Use and When in Organizations

    Simply put, leadership is the set of activities to clarify direction and priorities,
    and influence people toward those. Leadership is a strong component in a supervisor’s
    overall activities of management. You are responsible for leading other individuals,
    teams and your department and — perhaps most important — leading yourself.
    Especially for first-time supervisors, the role can be quite stressful because
    they are now faced with responsibilities they have never had before — they
    are leading people, not just activities that usually have clear-cut and routine
    tasks. Therefore, it is extremely important for supervisors — especially first-time
    supervisors — to understand principles and various styles of leadership, including
    which style to use and when. See
    What is Leadership?
    How Do I Lead?


    Typical Roles in Supervision

    The job of a supervisor is a very dynamic one, depending on the culture of
    the organization, complexity of the department’s goals, access to sufficient
    resources and expertise of the people in the department, and especially on the
    supervisor’s ability to successfully delegate to their direct reports. A supervisor
    might play different roles even in the same day.

    Advocate

    The supervisor is often responsible to represent the employee’s requests and
    to management, along with also representing the employee’s case for deserving
    a reward. For example, if an employee deserves a promotion, the supervisor often
    must justify the case for promotion to the supervisor’s supervisor, as well.
    If the employee has a rather unique personal situation that warrants special
    consideration by the rest of management, the supervisor must explain this situation
    and how it can be handled. The supervisor is also responsible to advocate for
    upper management when it wants all employees to understand and embrace a major
    management decision. It’s not unusual for employees to sometimes see the supervisor
    as part of “management” while at other times seeing the supervisor
    as a personal friend.

    Boss

    There are many different names for leaders in organizations and how they are
    viewed. However, the most conventional term and the most widely understood is
    that of boss. The supervisor is deemed to be the boss when people in the department
    are ultimately looking for direction and guidance in their jobs. The ways that
    a supervisor carries out that role can vary from strong direction, advice and
    deadlines to consensus-based decisions, thoughtful questioning and adaptive
    deadlines.
    Be
    the Boss Everyone Wants to Work For
    Good
    Boss! Bad Boss! Which Are You?

    Coach

    The term coach has taken on an entirely new meaning with the recent growth
    of the field of personal and professional coaching. Coaches in that field are
    experts at supporting others to bring out and apply their own wisdom. Often,
    they pose thoughtful questions to help that happen. Still, supervisors might
    guide their employees to increased performance and satisfaction in a variety
    of ways ranging from useful advice and feedback to thoughtful questions and
    support.
    How
    to Avoid Toxic Coaching
    All About
    Personal and Professional Coaching

    Facilitator

    The job of a facilitator is to support a group of people to clarify their desired
    results and achieve their results by working with each other. The nature of
    how facilitators do their job ranges from rather directive advice (especially
    when the group is getting started) to thoughtful questions, paraphrasing and
    summarizing. Thus, with an established team, a facilitator works much like a
    coach.
    Core Interpersonal
    Skills for Facilitators
    Core
    Group Skills for Facilitators

    Mentor

    A mentor is a person who helps another (a mentee) to develop in their job and
    career. The mentor may have officially accepted that role, for example, as part
    of an overall mentoring program, or informally accepted the role based on a
    mutual relationship. The mentee sees themselves as being able to count on the
    mentor for help. The mentor might use a variety of methods to help the mentee
    ranging from advice and materials to thoughtful questions and guidelines.
    Mentoring

    Trainer

    The supervisor is often the first person who is considered when a new employee
    needs to learn the job or when an employee is struggling to improve performance
    in the job. Employees also often turn to the supervisor to ask about personnel
    policies. Progressive employees might ask about the organization’s culture.
    The supervisor is responsible to ensure that training occurs, and might do the
    training themselves or arrange it through a subject matter expert. Training
    could be done in a variety of ways ranging from ongoing on-the-job advice to
    participating in a formal, systematic training program.
    Employee
    Training and Development: Reasons and Benefits


    Suggested Core Competencies to Supervise in Any
    Situation

    Various experts would disagree on what skills and practices should be required
    for supervisors. Various roles and skills are listed throughout the next sections
    in this topic. However, it would be difficult to undertake them without having
    the following core skills.

    Also consider
    Suggested
    Core Competencies to Lead in Any Situation


    Staffing (Human Resource Management)

    NOTE: Many of the following staffing activities are designed by a Human Resource
    Department (HR) if an organization has that type of department. Still, the activities
    are best carried out in collaboration with the supervisor who brings strong
    knowledge of the needed skills in the department. Organizations without an HR
    Department usually rely on the supervisor to conduct the activities, hopefully
    in accordance with up-to-date personnel policies.

    Ensuring Conformance to Personnel Policies

    The activities of supervision should always be respectful, fair and equitable
    and should always conform to relevant laws, rules and regulations. The best
    way to make sure that those conditions will continue to exist is to work from
    up-to-date personnel policies. Thus, staffing activities usually start by ensuring
    the personnel policies are up to date. Supervisors should be acquainted with
    all of the relevant policies as well as to make sure that the employees are,
    as well.
    Developing
    Personnel Policies

    Sample
    List of Personnel Policies

    Ensuring Diversity and Inclusion

    Especially in today s highly diverse organizations, the ability to work with
    people having diverse values and cultures is extremely important. An organization s
    culture is driven by the values throughout that organization. Employees need
    to feel included — that their values are being recognized, understood and respected.
    They need to feel that their ideas and concerns are being heard. Those conditions
    create strong motivation and momentum for strong satisfaction and performance
    in their jobs. Personnel policies should include guidelines to ensure a workforce
    is diverse and inclusive.
    Diversity
    and Inclusion

    Designing Job Roles

    There are several occasions when a job role needs to be created or updated.
    For example, supervisors would be designing a new role when there is sufficient
    evidence that enough new tasks that a new role was required. Another occasion
    would be if a current job needed to be updated. Ideally, planning for a new
    role is done during strategic planning or when a new product or service is added
    to the organization.
    How to Know What
    Positions and Jobs Are Needed
    Specifying
    Jobs and Roles

    Deciding Compensation and Benefits

    When designing a new job role, it should be associated with a suitable salary
    range that ensures sufficient compensation and benefits for the types of responsibilities
    needed in the role. Compensation includes topics in regard to wage and/or salary
    programs and structures, for example, salary ranges for job descriptions, merit-based
    programs, bonus-based programs, commission-based programs, etc. Employee benefits
    typically refers to retirement plans, health life insurance, life insurance,
    disability insurance, vacation, employee stock ownership plans, etc.
    Employee Benefits
    and Compensation (Employee Pay)

    Recruiting Good Candidates

    After the job role has been specified and approved by management, the supervisor
    is ready to recruit job candidates who might fill the job role. There are a
    wide variety of ways to recruit job candidates. The best methods are those that
    are most likely to reach out to the most suitable candidates.
    How to Find and
    Recruit the Best Job Candidates

    Screening Job Candidates

    The thoroughness and professionalism you use to interview candidates can make
    a strong, positive impression on candidates. It also conveys to them that you
    expect the same from them if they are hired by your organization. In an effort
    to mitigate the risk of a bad hiring decision, companies can use multiple tools
    in their hiring strategy. One of those, background screening, can help identify
    if your candidate is included in the 56% of applicants that provide false information
    on their resume.
    Screening Applicants
    The Top
    Three Things I Wish I Knew About Background Screening

    Hiring Employees

    Hiring employees involves a variety of tasks, any of which if not done effectively,
    could result in a mismatch between the needs of the department and that of the
    new hire. Thus, one of the most important tasks of a supervisor is hiring highly
    suitable employees. That includes going to as many sources as possible for finding
    good candidates, screening the candidates’ resumes and conducting interviews,
    and then coordinating the activities to making — and accepting — a formal
    offer for employment.
    How to Find and
    Recruit Best Job Candidates
    How to Screen
    Job Candidates
    Selecting (Hiring)
    New Employees

    Orienting Employees

    A new employee should be sufficiently oriented to the organization and its
    employees so that the employee feels familiar enough to begin doing a good job
    in the role. Planning an orientation to employees should be as carefully done
    as planning a systematic approach to training. For example, there should be
    overall goals that you want to accomplish with the orientation. There should
    be carefully chosen activities and materials used in the orientation to achieve
    the goals.
    Employee
    Orientation

    Retaining Employees

    One of the most expensive labor costs is the replacement of employees. Fortunately,
    there are many things a supervisor can do to increase the likelihood that good
    employees will remain. The supervisor can ensure the employee understands the
    job, is fully oriented and trained to do it, has suitable compensation, is effectively
    led, has a job design that helps the employee to be motivated, shares useful
    feedback, and supports the employee’s career development.
    How to Retain Your
    Best Employees

    Rewarding Employees

    There are a variety of ways for a supervisor to reward employees for the quality
    of the work they do in the workplace. For example, rewards can be in the form
    of money, benefits, time off from work, acknowledgement for work well done,
    affiliation with other workers or a sense of accomplishment from finishing a
    major task.
    Rewarding
    Employee Performance


    Employee Performance Management

    Employee performance management includes the activities to ensure that all
    employees are effectively and efficiently working toward the departmental goals
    that are assigned to them. That means assigning appropriate goals to the employee,
    ensuring the employee is sufficiently equipped to achieve the goal, monitoring
    and measuring the employee’s activities and accomplishments, and rewarding the
    employee for accomplishments or addressing situations where goals are not being
    achieved in a high-quality and timely manner.
    How to Ensure
    Strong Employee Performance Management

    There are a variety of different styles in implementing a performance management
    process.
    Performance
    Management: Traditional and Progressive Approaches

    Setting Goals

    Goals can be established for a variety of reasons, for example, to overcome
    performance problems, qualify for future jobs and roles, take advantage of sudden
    opportunities that arise and/or give direction to training plans. Goals provide
    clear direction to both supervisor and employee. They form a common frame of
    reference around which the supervisor and employee can effectively communicate.
    They clearly indicate success, and can facilitate strong sense of fulfillment
    for employee and supervisor. Also they help clarify the roles of the supervisor
    and employee.
    Goal
    Setting With Employees

    Training Employees

    Effective training includes clarifying the goals that are to be achieved by
    the employee, assessing the gap between the employee’s current capabilities
    and those needed to achieve the goals, and then ensuring suitable training to
    close those gap. High-quality training also ensures that gap has been closed
    over time. The supervisor might conduct the training or arrange it to come from
    another source. Training could range from on-the-job advice to more formal training
    programs.
    How
    to Train a New Employee
    Designing
    Training Plans and Learning Objectives
    Suggestions
    to Enrich Any Training and Development Plans

    Leading Employees (Delegating, Coaching,
    Mentoring, etc.)

    Supervisors provide ongoing guidance and support to their employees in a variety
    of ways to suit the nature and needs of both the supervisor and employees. Good
    leadership involves providing the right context for each employee to motivate
    themselves. Delegation involves clarifying the result desired by the supervisor
    and encouraging the employee to decide how best to achieve the result. Coaching
    might be used to bring out the employee’s own wisdom to address a current situation.
    Mentoring involves ongoing advice and coaching to help an employee to develop
    in their jobs and careers.
    Helping
    People to Motivate Themselves and Others

    How to Delegate
    to Employees
    All About
    Personal and Professional Coaching

    Mentoring

    Motivating Employees

    A major function of supervisors is to support the motivation of their employees.
    Different people can have quite different motivators, for example, by more money,
    more recognition, time off from work, promotions, opportunities for learning,
    or opportunities for socializing and relationships. Therefore, when attempting
    to help motivate people, it’s important to identify what motivates each of them.
    Ultimately, though, long-term motivation comes from people motivating themselves.
    Helping
    People to Motivate Themselves and Others

    Sharing Feedback

    The “life’s blood” of successful supervision is the continued and
    effective feedback between the supervisor and employee. Feedback to employees
    is information regarding their performance and also is information they can
    act on. Feedback must be shared in a manner that is understandable to them and
    is perceived by them as being provided in a highly respectful manner. Sharing
    feedback involves skills in effective listening, verbal and non-verbal communications,
    and working in multi-cultural environments.
    How to
    Give Useful Feedback and Advice

    Conducting Performance Reviews

    Regular performance reviews are critical. Performance reviews help supervisors
    feel more honest in their relationships with their employees and feel better
    about themselves in their supervisoral roles. Employees are assured clear understanding
    of what’s expected from them, their own personal strengths and areas for development
    and a solid sense of their relationship with their supervisor.
    Conducting
    Performance Appraisals/Reviews

    Addressing Performance Problems

    Supervisors should promptly respond to occasions where an employee’s performance
    is not acceptable. Performance issues on the actual behaviors of the employee,
    whether they were insufficient for the job or inappropriate in the workplace.
    Any special circumstances that caused those behaviors should be understood.
    The supervisor should carefully document the notification in the employee’s
    file.
    How to
    Address Employee Performance Problems

    Terminating Employees

    As with the other activities in staffing and employee performance management,
    the termination of an employee should be done in accordance with the procedure
    described in the personnel policies. The policies might specify, for example,
    that the supervisor first issues a verbal warning to the employee and then a
    written warning before the formal action to terminate an employee.
    How
    to Effectively Fire an Employee


    Team Performance Management

    The activities in team performance management are very similar to those of
    employee performance management, as listed above. Team performance management
    refers to the cycle of activities to enhance the performance of a team. The
    activities to first develop the team are often referred to as team building.
    The activities to manage each meeting are about meeting management. The activities
    to guide and support the members’ activities during a meeting are referred to
    as facilitation.
    Team
    Performance Management: Guidelines and Resources
    Performance
    Management: Traditional and Progressive Approaches

    Team Building

    High-quality teams need strong and trusting relationships between members.
    However, they also need a firm foundation of structures, including a clear purpose
    and goals, sufficient resource, adaptable guidelines for assigning and changing
    leadership, reliable means to sustain continual communications among members
    and the organization, and means to make group decisions and solve problems.
    All About Team
    Building

    Leading Teams

    After a team has been built, it needs ongoing direction, guidance and support
    from upper management for the team to continue to be successful in achieving
    its goals. Help from the supervisor can range from strong involvement with ongoing
    directives to a more indirect and supportive role.
    Guidelines
    to Conducting Effective Meetings
    Group
    Decision-Making and Problem Solving
    All About Facilitation

    Team Performance Planning

    This is the initial phase in team performance management where the supervisor
    works with the team to specify the goals to be accomplished by the team and
    by when. The supervisor explains how the goals are directly aligned with achieving
    the strategic goals of the organization. The supervisor and team might associate
    specific and measurable milestones toward those team goals. They document the
    results of their planning into an overall team performance plan.
    Team Performance
    Management: Performance Planning Phase

    In a progressive approach, this phase could be done in a highly collaborative
    approach between the supervisor and members of the team.
    Performance
    Management: Traditional and Progressive Approaches

    Team Performance Reviews

    During this phase, the supervisor conducts ongoing observations and monitoring
    to assess how well the team goals are being achieved. The supervisor decides
    if the quality of the team’s performance has exceeded or met expectations and
    decides how to reward the team accordingly. This phase could be done in a highly
    collaborative manner between the supervisor and members of the team.
    Team Performance
    Management: Performance Appraisal / Evaluation Phase

    Team Improvement Planning

    During this phase, a plan is developed for how the team could improve its performance
    to more effectively achieve or exceed the team goals. The plan might suggest
    further training, providing more resources or adjusting the goals to be more
    realistic.
    Team Performance
    Management: Development (Improvement) Planning Phase


    Getting Started in Supervision

    Typical Experience of First-Time
    Supervisor

    The job of supervisor, especially for new supervisors, can be one of the most
    confusing, frustrating and stressful jobs in an organization. Many times, a
    person is promoted to a supervisor role, not because the person has already
    shown strong skills in supervising people, but because the employee continued
    to do a high-quality job that was much more technical in nature than leading
    people. Thus, after the person is promoted, it can be an entirely new situation
    for the employee. There are several more reasons for this, including:

    • Supervisors often do not have adequate training about their new roles, responsibilities
      and ways to lead people. They might be used to doing very well in a technical
      job, but now are faced with diverse and challenging tasks they have never
      done before.
    • Supervisors are often intimidated when faced with enforcing a wide range
      of policies and procedures, many of which seems highly technical and legal
      in nature. Even if they do not understand the policies, they still are responsible
      for all of them.
    • Supervisors rarely have enough time to monitor and measure the progress
      of their department, while cultivating working relationships with a diversity
      of people who are to be guided and supported by the supervisor.
    • Supervisors often feel very alone in their jobs. This is especially true
      if they were promoted over people who used to be their peers. Supervisors
      are responsible to meet the needs of their bosses above them, and yet do the
      same with those below them.
    • Supervisors can often feel overwhelmed and stressed out. It can take a lot
      of courage to admit this, especially to the supervisors’ bosses who already
      are expecting a lot from them.

    Realities of Supervision

    By Marcia
    Zidle

    Here are insights from years of working with managers, teams, and new leaders
    on the realities of supervision. For some of you it may be “old hat”;
    for others an “ah’ha”. In either case, know that the moment
    you start taking things for granted, you stop being effective. So what can you
    learn from these seven supervisory principles.

    1. There is no routine to management work. Changes are that your old job came
    with a familiar routine. You performed the tasks assigned to you and you did
    them in a prescribed order. Some things had to be done by noon, while others
    had to be completed before you left for the day. As a rule, when the day’s
    work was done, your day was over. But for managers, there’s no such thing
    as “the day’s work,” so bid a fond farewell to routine.

    2. People and issues arrive un-prioritized. As a manager, you now have more
    people and issues to deal with. It’s your job to filter them for urgency
    and importance, and help employees stay focused by doing the same.

    3. People start acting differently towards you. You’re still the same
    person, but you’re in a different role. Some people withdraw from you;
    others want to get closer. Ultimately, your employees are dealing with managerial
    change in their own way and trying to figure out what kind of manager you really
    are.

    4. You have to give up your old job. You have a new job so don’t hang
    on to your old one. This can be hard. After all, it’s because of your
    previous success that you’ve been promoted. But failure to let go of your
    old job causes more problems for first-time managers than anything else.

    5. Guard against the perception that certain people are your favorites. Yesterday
    you had co-workers; today you have employees. While it’s only natural
    to like some individuals more than others you no longer have that luxury as
    manager. Employees are keenly aware of who has direct access to you. In the
    past, you had coffee or lunch with the same people every day, but if you keep
    this up, your employees will earmark these people as “your favorites.”

    6. Employees want their manager to manage them. Friendly behavior is great,
    but it shouldn’t be a substitute for good managing. Your employees expect
    you to deal with poor performers at work. You need to demonstrate that you won’t
    tolerate poor performance. If you’re fair and decisive, your good performers
    will give you their hard-earned respect and best effort.

    7. Don’t hold on to information, rather communicate, communicate, communicate.
    When you’re on an airplane and it encounters turbulence or the flight
    is delayed, you want to know what’s happening. Not knowing makes you nervous.
    Employees also want to know what’s happening — what’s causing
    the bumpy ride. If people don’t understand, then anxiety mounts, trust
    declines and rumors fly. The next thing you see is morale plummeting and work
    not getting done. That’s why ongoing communication is so important.

    Management Success Tip

    Understand your role had changed. You are now in charge tasked with getting
    work done through others. You must move from doing to delegating; from being
    liked to being respected; from holding on to letting go; from knowing all the
    answers to getting input from others.

    Make Sure You Supervise Yourself

    The job can be stressful and it can be tempting to continue to focus on the
    job and your employees. However, there is an old saying that you can’t effectively
    lead others, unless you can first effectively lead yourself. That means:

    • Monitor your work hours — If it gets to be an average of 55 hours per week
      or more, than start finding other activities outside of work that are at least
      as rewarding. No one on their death bed says, “I wish I had worked harder.”
    • Recognize your own signs of stress — Are they increasing irritability?
      Fatigue? Drinking alcohol? Confusion and frustration? Aches and pains? Warnings
      from friends and colleagues?
    • Get a mentor or coach — They can be invaluable when you consider that your
      health is priceless. It doesn’t matter how much your boss compliments you
      if your family and body are paying the price.
    • Learn to delegate — That is one of the most important skills for any supervisor.
      Effective delegate decreases your workload while expanding the opportunities
      for learning among your employees.
    • Communicate as much as reasonable — That is one of the best antidotes to
      loneliness and fatigue. Be honest with your friends and family about how you
      are feeling and what you want.
    • Know what’s important versus what’s urgent — If you take care of the important
      things, then the urgent ones go away. For example, attend to proactive planning
      about the future rather than reactive responses to surprise and crises.
    • Recognize accomplishments — That can be one of the biggest satisfactions
      and motivators, not only for yourself, but for the employees who work for
      you.

    Stress
    and Time Management
    Getting
    a Mentor
    Getting
    Coached
    How to
    Delegate to Employees
    Basics
    in Internal Organizational Communications

    How Can You Develop Your Supervisory Skills?

    You can improve your skills in a rather informal approach or in a carefully
    designed and systematic approach. The latter is often referred to as a supervisor
    development program. Here are guidelines for either approach.

    How
    to Design Your Supervisor Development Program


    Free Basic Guide to Leadership and Supervision

    Here is a link to a complete, well-organized set of guidelines for the basic
    functions in supervision. The guidelines comprise a basic guidebook, which can
    be printed.

    Free Basic Guide
    to Leadership and Supervision (html format)


    For the Category of Supervision:

    To round out your knowledge of this Library topic, you may
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