Overview of Basic Methods to Collect Information

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    Overview of Basic Methods to Collect Information

    © Copyright Carter McNamara, MBA, PhD, Authenticity Consulting, LLC.
    Adapted from the Field
    Guide to Nonprofit Program Design, Marketing and Evaluation
    , Field Guide to Consulting and Organizational Development with Nonprofits
    and Field Guide to Consulting and Organizational Development.

    The following table provides an overview of the basic methods to collect data.

    Method

    Overall Purpose

    Advantages

    Challenges

    questionnaires, surveys, checklists when need to quickly and/or easily get lots of
    information from people in a non threatening way
    -can complete anonymously
    -inexpensive to administer
    -easy to compare and analyze
    -administer to many people
    -can get lots of data
    -many sample questionnaires already exist
    -might not get careful feedback
    -wording can bias client’s responses
    -are impersonal
    -in surveys, may need sampling expert
    – doesn’t get full story
    interviews when want to fully understand someone’s impressions
    or experiences, or learn more about their answers to questionnaires
    -get full range and depth of information
    -develops relationship with client
    -can be flexible with client
    -can take much time
    -can be hard to analyze and compare
    -can be costly
    -interviewer can bias client’s responses
    documentation review when want impression of how program operates
    without interrupting the program; is from review of applications,
    finances, memos, minutes, etc.
    -get comprehensive and historical information
    -doesn’t interrupt program or client’s routine in program
    -information already exists
    -few biases about information
    -often takes much time
    -info may be incomplete
    -need to be quite clear about what looking for
    -not flexible means to get data; data restricted to what already
    exists
    observation to gather accurate information about how a program
    actually operates, particularly about processes
    -view operations of a program as they are actually
    occurring
    -can adapt to events as they occur
    -can be difficult to interpret seen behaviors
    -can be complex to categorize observations
    -can influence behaviors of program participants
    -can be expensive
    focus groups explore a topic in depth through group discussion,
    e.g., about reactions to an experience or suggestion, understanding
    common complaints, etc.; useful in evaluation and marketing
    -quickly and reliably get common impressions
    -can be efficient way to get much range and depth of information
    in short time
    – can convey key information about programs
    -can be hard to analyze responses
    -need good facilitator for safety and closure
    -difficult to schedule 6-8 people together
    case studies to fully understand or depict client’s experiences
    in a program, and conduct comprehensive examination through cross
    comparison of cases
    -fully depicts client’s experience in program
    input, process and results
    -powerful means to portray program to outsiders
    -usually quite time consuming to collect, organize
    and describe
    -represents depth of information, rather than breadth

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