All About Training and Development (Learning and Development)

© Copyright Carter McNamara, MBA, PhD, Authenticity Consulting, LLC.

Training and development -- or "learning and development" as many refer to it now -- is one of the most important aspects of our lives and our work. (Many people view "training" as an activity that produces the result or outcome of "learning" -- and learning is typically viewed as new knowledge, skills and competencies or abilities.) In our culture, we highly value learning. Yet, despite our having attended many years of schooling, many of us have no idea how to carefully design an approach to training and development. This topic in the Library provides an extensive range of information about training and development, including to depict how the many aspects of training and development relate to each other. Also, this topic explains how training and development can be used, informally or formally, to meet the nature and needs of the reader.

Sections of This Topic Include

What is Learning and Development? Why Is It So Important?

Understanding Learning and Development
Benefits of Learning and Development
Relationship of Learning and Development to Performance

Different Types of Training and Activities

Informal Versus Formal Training, Self-Directed Versus Other-Directed Training
Types of Activities for Learning and Development
Movements in Organizational Learning and Development

Preparation for Developing Learning and Development Programs

Examples of Programs in the Workplace
How to Ensure Transfer of Training
Suggestions to Enrich Activities of Learning and Development

Developing Systematic Training and Development Programs

Instructional Systems Design (ISD) and ADDIE
ADDIE Phase 1 -- Assessing Your Training Needs: Needs Assessment to Training Goals
ADDIE Phase 2 -- Designing Training Plans and Learning Objectives
ADDIE Phase 3 -- Developing Training Activities and Materials
ADDIE Phase 4 -- Implementing Training: Conducting the Training with Learners
ADDIE Phase 5 -- Evaluating Training and Results (ROI of Training)

Learning and Development Programs -- Roles and Management

Management of Learning and Development Programs and Activities
Practitioners in Learning and Development
Many Forms of Development (Leaders, Managers, Supervisors, Teams, etc.)

Resources for Teachers and Trainers

Tips and Tools for Trainers and Teachers
Starting a Training Business
General Resources
Library's Blogs Related to Training and Development

Also see Library's Blogs Related to Training and Development

In addition to the articles on this current page, also see the following blogs that have posts related to Training and Development. Scan down the blog's page to see various posts. Also see the section "Recent Blog Posts" in the sidebar of the blog or click on "next" near the bottom of a post in the blog. The blog also links to numerous free related resources.
Library's Career Management Blog
Library's Human Resources Blog
Library's Leadership Blog
Library's Supervision Blog
Library's Training and Development Blog

 


WHAT IS LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT? WHY IS IT SO IMPORTANT?

Understanding Learning and Development

It's amazing how so many of us go through so many years of schooling, but have such little understanding of learning and development. Before reading about the many aspects of learning and development in this topic in the Library, including learning and development programs and practitioners, it's best to start with a basic understanding of what learning and development is and how to best benefit from it. Also, it's useful to understand the common terms and the sometimes subtle differences between them.
Basic Terms in Training and Development (Knowledge, Skills, Training, Learning, etc.)

If you will be doing training and development with yourself (and almost every adult will be at some time in their lives) or with others, you should know the differences between training children and teens versus training adults. Adults have very different nature and needs in training. Also, there are some common beliefs about training that just aren't true. Understand those misconceptions so you don't build your training around those illusions.
Principles of -- and Myths About -- Adult Learning
Theories of Learning and Development

Benefits of Learning and Development

We often think that the biggest benefit of learning is that we get a diploma or credential. As we get wiser, we realize there are so many more benefits than that. Knowing the benefits will help motivate you to design your own training plans and programs, and to motivate others to participate as well. Perhaps one of the biggest benefits is the appreciation that you can be learning all the time, even if you are not in a formal training program.
Employment Training and Development: Reasons and Benefits

Relationship of Learning and Development to Performance

We tend to assume that training leads to learning, which leads to doing better in our lives and work -- it leads to increased performance. However, you will very likely get more out of your trainings and be more successful in promoting trainings to others if you understand more about the relationship between training and performance. That understanding is especially useful when designing training to increase performance or to redesign training programs that don't seem to be as successful as you wish.
Tying Training to Performance (Performance Consulting and HPT)


DIFFERENT TYPES OF TRAINING AND ACTIVITIES

Informal Versus. Formal Training, Self-Directed Versus Other-Directed Training

There are different, major forms of learning and development. We're most familiar with formal and other-directed forms of learning and development, that include the strong attention to the systematic structure and evaluation of the learning and development, especially as used in schooling. That is somewhat ironic, because the most common forms of learning and development are informal and self-directed -- they occur without strong attention to a systematic design and evaluation and without many experts guiding us through those experiences.
Ways to Look at Training and Development Processes: Informal/Formal and Self-Directed/Other-Directed

Types of Activities for Learning and Development

There are many approaches to learning and development and many types of activities that can be undertaken to learn. We're most used to thinking of the formal, other-directed activities, such as attending courses or lectures. However, most of the types of learning are informal and unstructured. An awareness of these other types will broaden your possibilities for intentional learning and for designing training for yourself and others.
Various Ideas for Learning Activities

Movements in Organizational Training and Development

The field (or many would argue, the profession) of training and development has undergone dramatic improvements, especially with the inclusion of computer- and Web-based technologies. We're also expanding the concept of learning beyond the learning of individuals -- we're thinking that groups and organizations can learn, too. (Although the topics of the learning organization and knowledge management are fairly recent and still popular, many people would disagree that they're actually learning and development programs -- those people might assert that they're actually forms of organizational performance management. However, the two topics still seem to be so broad and changing, that they're referred to here as movements.)
Learning Organization
Knowledge Management


PREPARATION FOR DEVELOPING TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS

Examples of Programs in the Workplace

Before this Library topic goes on to explaining how to design and develop training programs, it's useful to get a quick impression of various types of training programs. A training program is an intentionally designed, (hopefully) highly integrated set of activities that are aligned to accomplish a certain set of results among learners. Many of us might not be used to thinking of the following as programs in the workplace, but they are.
Overviews of Various Formal Training Processes
Orienting New Employees (New Hires, On-Boarding)
Corporate Universities

How to Ensure Transfer of Training -- Training That Sticks

One of the biggest concerns of trainers -- and those paying for training -- is whether the learners will indeed understand and apply the new information and materials from the learning and development activities, that is, whether the new information and materials will transfer to the learners. The following link is to many resources with guidelines to increase the likelihood of transfer of training.
How to Ensure Transfer of Training -- How to Reinforce Learning

Suggestions to Enrich the Activities of Learning and Development

Now we'll tie the many guidelines together into a set of suggestions that will be useful, especially when undergoing or designing training programs for yourself and others. The second link is to a guide you could consider when designing a training program.
Suggestions to Enrich Learning Any Training and Development Plans


DEVELOPING SYSTEMATIC TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS

Instructional System Design (ISD) and the ADDIE Model

Formal approaches to learning and development often have the highest likelihood of transfer of training. A formal approach to learning and development usually follows a systematic and consistent framework. Systematic means that the framework is designed to guide learners to achieve an overall set of goals -- goals to address a need or situation, then associates objectives and activities to achieve those overall goals, and evaluates the activities and results to be sure the goals were achieved. Instructional system design (ISD) is the activities to ensure that the design of training is very successful in achieving the goals of the training. One of the most common ISD models is ADDIE, which is an acronym for assessment, design, development, implementation and evaluation -- you can discern from the acronym that ADDIES is a systematic design of training.
Formal Training Processes -- Instructional Systems Design (ISD) and ADDIE
Example Guidelines to Design Your Training Plan

ADDIE Phase 1 -- Assessing Your Training Needs: Needs Assessment to Training Goals

What overall results or outcomes should be accomplished by learners? Those outcomes usually are identified from the results of assessments, or measurements, of what a person or workplace needs to accomplish in order to achieve some desired level of performance. An outcome might be the ability to perform a complex job.
Training Needs Assessment and Analysis: Identifying Training Goals

ADDIE Phase 2 -- Designing Training Plans and Learning Objectives

What learning objectives must be accomplished by learners in order to achieve the overall outcomes, and what activities must be undertaken by trainers and learners to accomplish those objectives? The integration of the overall outcomes, objectives and activities and also how they will be evaluated comprise the design of the learning and development program. Learning objectives often are described in terms of new learning -- new knowledge, skills and competencies.
Designing Training Plans and Learning Objectives

ADDIE Phase 3 -- Developing Training Activities and Materials

Now it's important to get even more clear on what resources must be obtained and developed in order to undertake the activities to achieve the objectives. Resource might include certain expertise, facilities and technologies. Development might include several trainers and learners reviewing the design of the training to ensure it meets their nature and needs.
Developing Training Activities and Materials

ADDIE Phase 4 -- Implementing Your Training Program

Now you're ready to have trainers and learners participate in the program, to undertake the activities and evaluations of learning. Implementation often results in refining the original design of the training program.
Implementing Training: Conducting the Training with Learners

ADDIE Phase 5 -- Evaluating Your Training Program

As trainers and learners participate in the program, evaluation should occur of the quality of the activities and the extent of achievement of the objectives. After the program, evaluation should occur to assess the extent of achievement of the overall goals of the program. Evaluation might focus on short-term, intermediate and long-term outcomes.
Evaluating Training and Results (ROI of Training)


LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS -- ROLES AND MANAGEMENT

Management of Learning and Development Programs and Activities

Learning and development activities must be carefully led and managed -- many people would argue that they're not unlike other functions in organizations, such as planning, marketing and financial management. The following roles might be utilized, especially in well-established organizations with extensive resources.
Learning Management Systems
Role of Chief Learning Officers
Role of Management in Learning and Development
Role of Learners in Training and Development
How to Know When to Facilitate, Train or Coach

Practitioners in Learning and Development

The following links are to numerous types of positions that often have official responsibility for various forms of learning and development.
Chief Learning Officers
Coaches

Facilitators
Human Performance Technologists
Human Resource Specialists
Organization Development Practitioners
Popular Education for Learning and Development and Social Change
Performance Consultants
Trainers (Corporate Trainers) (includes guidelines about training)
Do You Need An Instructional Design Degree?

Forms of Development (Leaders, Managers, Supervisors, Teams, etc.)

It might help to broaden your understanding of how learning and development is applied in life and organizations by considering various forms of development. Development is often referred to as the activities to raise the performance of a person, team, process or organization to another level. Development include a wide variety of forms of learning and development. The following links are to a wide variety of forms of development in people and organizations.
Organization Development
Board Development

Leadership Development
Management Development
Supervisoral Development
Team Development
Personal Development
Sales Training
Training Solutions for the “Dumbest Management Concepts of All Time”


RESOURCES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS

Tips and Tools for Trainers and Teachers

Before reading about more specific tips and tools for trainers and teachers, it's important to have a basic understanding of training and development, in general. So be sure to at least scan the list of topics listed at the top of this page in order to understand the broader aspects of training and development. Then see
Tips and Tools for Trainers and Teachers

Starting a Training Business

This topic assumes that you already have some expertise in training and are thinking about starting a business to be a professional trainer. The guidelines in this topic are focused on helping you to start a new organization, expand a current organization, or start a new service. If you do not yet have expertise in training, you should review much of the contents of the topic Training and Development, and then certainly practice training in a variety of venues, including with evaluation from other trainers and participants in your trainings.
How to Start a Training Business

General Resources

Online Resources for Training and Development
Online Educational Directories
Free Training Programs


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For the Category of Training and Development:

To round out your knowledge of this Library topic, you may want to review some related topics, available from the link below. Each of the related topics includes free, online resources.

Also, scan the Recommended Books listed below. They have been selected for their relevance and highly practical nature.

Related Library Topics

Recommended Books

Basics and General Information

Orienting and Training Employees



Basics and General Information

Leadership and Supervision in Business - Book Cover Field Guide to Leadership and Supervision in Business
by Carter McNamara, published by Authenticity Consulting, LLC. Provides step-by-step, highly practical guidelines to recruit, utilize and evaluate the best employees for your business. Includes guidelines to effectively lead yourself (as Board member or employee), other individuals, groups and organizations. Includes guidelines to avoid burnout -- a very common problem among employees of small businesses. Many materials in this Library's topic about staffing are adapted from this book.
Leadership and Supervision With Nonprofit Staff - Book Cover Field Guide to Leadership and Supervision With Nonprofit Staff
by Carter McNamara, published by Authenticity Consulting, LLC. Provides step-by-step, highly practical guidelines to recruit, utilize and evaluate the best staff members for your nonprofit. Includes guidelines to effectively lead yourself (as Board member or staff member), other individuals, groups and organizations. Includes guidelines to avoid burnout -- a very common problem among nonprofit staff. Many materials in this Library's topic about staffing are adapted from this book.

The following books are recommended because of their highly practical nature and often because they include a wide range of information about this Library topic. To get more information about each book, just click on the image of the book. Also, a "bubble" of information might be displayed. You can click on the title of the book in that bubble to get more information, too.



Orienting and Training Employees

The following books are recommended because of their highly practical nature and often because they include a wide range of information about this Library topic. To get more information about each book, just click on the image of the book. Also, a "bubble" of information might be displayed. You can click on the title of the book in that bubble to get more information, too.



Also See

Career Development -- Recommended Books

Coaching -- Recommended Books

Human Resources -- Recommended Books

Career Development -- Recommended Books

Interpersonal Skills -- Recommended Books

Personal Development -- Recommended Books

Personal Productivity -- Recommended Books

Time and Stress Management -- Recommended Books




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