Guidelines and Framework for Designing Basic Logic Model

© Copyright Carter McNamara, MBA, PhD, Authenticity Consulting, LLC.

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Description

The following framework can be filled in by readers to design a logic model (or diagram) for their organization and for each of its programs. Guidelines and examples are provided to help the reader.

Purpose of a Logic Model

A logic model is a top-level depiction the flow of materials and processes to produce the results desired by the organization or program. The model can be very useful to organize planning and analysis when designing the organization and its programs or when designing outcomes-based evaluations of programs. It can also be useful for describing organizations and programs (for example, in grant proposals).

What to Include and What Not to Include

Logic models can be in regard to whatever application in which the designer chooses to use them. However, when using logic models to analyze or describe organizations and programs, it's often best to use logic models to depict major, recurring items in the organization or programs -- rather than one-time items. For example, you might not choose to do a logic model for the one-time, initial activities to build an organization or program (constructing the building, registering with state and federal authorities, etc.). However, you might benefit more from using logic models to analyze and describe the major, recurring activities that occur in the organization or program (once they're built) to continue to produce the results desired for clients and the community.

Size and Level of Detail

The logic model should be of a size that readers can easily study the model without extensive reference and cross-comparisons between pages. Ideally, the logic model is one or at most two pages long. The level of detail should be sufficient for the reader to grasp the major items that go into an organization or program, what occurs to those inputs, the various outputs that results and the overall benefits/impacts (or outcomes) that occur and to which groups of people.

Note the content of program logic models is often more specific than models for organizations. This level of specificity is often quite useful for program planners.

Definitions of Basic Terms

Logic models typically depict the inputs, processes, outputs and outcomes associated with an organization and its programs. Don't be concerned about your grasping the "correct" definition of each of the following terms. It's more important to have some sense of what they mean -- and even more important to be consistent in your use of the terms.

Inputs

These are materials that the organization or program takes in and then processes to produce the results desired by the organization. Types of inputs are people, money, equipment, facilities, supplies, people's ideas, people's time, etc. Inputs can also be major forces that influence the organization or programs. For example, the inputs to a nonprofit program that provides training to clients might include learners, training materials, teachers, classrooms, funding, paper and pencils, etc. Various laws and regulations effect how the program is conducted, for example, safety regulations, Equal Opportunity Employment guidelines, etc. Inputs are often associated with a cost to obtain and use the item -- budgets are listings of inputs and the costs to obtain and/or use them.

Processes (or Activities or Strategies or Methods)

Processes are used by the organization or program to manipulate and arrange items to produce the results desired by the organization or program. Processes can range from putting a piece of paper on a desk to manufacturing a space shuttle. However, logic models are usually only concerned with the major recurring processes associated with producing the results desired by the organization or program. For example, the major processes used by a nonprofit program that provides training to clients might include recruitment of learners, pretesting of learners, training, post-testing and certification.

Outputs

Outputs are usually the tangible results of the major processes in the organization. They are usually accounted for by their number, for example, the number of students who failed or passed a test, courses taught, tests taken, teachers used, etc. Outputs are frequently misunderstood to indicate success of an organization or program. However, if the outputs aren't directly associated with achieving the benefits desired for clients, then the outputs are poor indicators of the success of the organization and its programs. You can use many teachers, but that won't mean that many clients were successfully trained.

Outcomes

Outcomes are the (hopefully positive) impacts on those people whom the organization wanted to benefit with its programs. Outcomes are usually specified in terms of:
a) learning, including enhancements to knowledge, understanding/perceptions/attitudes, and behaviors
b) skills (behaviors to accomplish results, or capabilities)
c) conditions (increased security, stability, pride, etc.)

It's often to specify outcomes in terms of short-term, intermediate and long-term.



Basic Example of a Logic Model

The following example is intended to further portray the nature of inputs, processes, outputs and outcomes.

The logic model is for an organization called the Self-Directed Learning Center (SDLC).

Logic models for programs are often more detailed.

inputs

processes

outputs

short-term outcome(s)

intermediate outcomes

long-term outcomes

- Free articles and other publications on the Web

- Collaborators

- Free Management Library

- Funders

- Self-directed learners·

- Volunteers

- Computers

- Web

- Supplies

- Provide peer-assistance models in which learners support each other

- Provide free, online training program: Basics of Self-Directed Learning

- Provide free, online training program: Basic Life Skills

- Provide free, online training program: Passing your GED Exam

- 30 groups that used peer models

- 100 completed training programs

- 900 learners who finished Basics of Self-Directed Learning

- 900 learners who finished Basic Life Skills

- 900 learners who passed their GED to gain high-school diploma

- high school diploma for graduates

- improved attitude toward self and society for graduates

- improved family life for family of graduates

- full-time employment for learners (in job that required high-school education)

- increased reliability and improved judgment of learners

- enhanced publicity and public relations for SDLC

- independent living for learner (by using salary to rent apartment)

- strong basic life skills for learner

- improved love life for learner who's now in a relationship

- increased likelihood and interest for learner to attend college


Logic Model

for

Organization (Name) _______________________________________________________

Or Program (Name) ________________________________________________________

inputs

processes

outputs

short-term outcomes

intermediate outcomes

long-term outcomes

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For the Category of Capacity Building (Nonprofit):

To round out your knowledge of this Library topic, you may want to review some related topics, available from the link below. Each of the related topics includes free, online resources.

Also, scan the Recommended Books listed below. They have been selected for their relevance and highly practical nature.

Related Library Topics

Recommended Books

Starting a Nonprofit Organization

Overall Capacity Building to Enhance an Established Nonprofit Organization



Starting a Nonprofit Organization

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Developing, Operating and Restoring Your Nonprofit Board - Book Cover Field Guide to Developing, Operating and Restoring Your Nonprofit Board
by Carter McNamara, published by Authenticity Consulting, LLC. Provides step-by-step, highly practical guidelines to organize, operate and sustain high-quality nonprofit Boards -- and to fix a broken Board! Includes variety of Board models you can choose from, roles and responsibilities, how to get the best members, how to train and organize them, goals for standard committees, ensuring high-quality meetings, evaluating Boards, how to evaluate and/or replace the Executive Director, and much more! Includes many sample Board policies you can download! Written by the developer of the Free Management Library. Many materials in this Library's topic about Boards are adapted from this book. 30-day, money-back, guarantee!

The following books are recommended because of their highly practical nature and often because they include a wide range of information about this Library topic. To get more information about each book, just click on the image of the book. Also, a "bubble" of information might be displayed. You can click on the title of the book in that bubble to get more information, too.



Overall Capacity Building to Enhance an Established Nonprofit Organization

Consulting and Organization Development With Nonprofits - Book Cover Field Guide to Consulting and Organizational Development With Nonprofits
by Carter McNamara, published by Authenticity Consulting, LLC. Provides complete, step-by-step guidelines to identify complex issues in nonprofit organizations and successfully resolve each of them. This book is also helpful to organizations that are doing fine now, but want to evolve to the next level of performance. This is one of the truly comprehensive, yet practical, books about this complex subject! Includes online forms that can be downloaded. Many materials in this Library's topic about guiding change are adapted from this comprehensive book.
Venture Forth - Book Cover Venture Forth! The Essential Guide to Starting a Money-Making Business in Your Nonprofit Organization
by Rolfe Larson, published by Fieldstone Alliance. Provide step-by-step guidelines to identify and implement the best ideas to generate more revenue to further your nonprofit mission. Ideas can come from current or new services -- many nonprofits are already providing critical services from which they could generate more revenue. The movement of social entrepreneurship, including earned-income generation, is becoming a must for every nonprofit to consider. Many funders greatly appreciate nonprofits generating more income -- this book shows you how!
Coping With Cutbacks - Book Cover Coping with Cutbacks -- The Nonprofit Guide to Success When Times Are Tight
by Emil Angelica and Vincent Hyman, published by Fieldstone Alliance. This treasure trove helps nonprofits to consider a very wide range of practical ideas for addressing financial shortfalls in their nonprofit organization. Every nonprofit, not just those in financial trouble, should be doing financial contingency planning -- planning for what they will do if they do not get the revenue that they expect from fees and fundraising. This book gives you plenty of ideas!
Strengthening Nonprofit Performance - Book Cover Strengthening Nonprofit Performance -- A Funder's Guide to Capacity Building
by Paul Connolly and Carol Lukas, published by Fieldstone Alliance. Provides step-by-step guidelines for funders to plan and develop highly effective capacity building services for nonprofits in their area. Many funders are finding that it's not enough just to write checks -- nonprofits need highly accessible, low-cost means of support and guidance to use the funder's resources to enhance organizational performance. This book explains common types of capacity building, key criteria for any successful capacity building program, and how to set up the best capacity building program.
Nonprofit Strategic Planning and Facilitation - Book Cover Field Guide to Nonprofit Strategic Planning and Facilitation
by Carter McNamara, published by Authenticity Consulting, LLC. Step-by-step guidelines to customize and facilitate planners to implement the best strategic planning process to suit the particular nature and needs of their nonprofit. This is one of the few books, if any, that explains how to actually facilitate planning. Includes many online forms that can be downloaded and used by planners.

The following books are recommended because of their highly practical nature and often because they include a wide range of information about this Library topic. To get more information about each book, just click on the image of the book. Also, a "bubble" of information might be displayed. You can click on the title of the book in that bubble to get more information, too.



Also See

Organizational Development (Managing Change) -- Recommended Books

Strategic Planning -- Recommended Books

Social Entrepreneurship (Nonprofit) -- Recommended Books

Capacity Building (Nonprofit) -- Recommended Books

Fundraising -- Recommended Books

Program Management -- Recommended Books

Planning and Project Management -- Recommended Books

Leading -- Recommended Books

Volunteers -- Recommended Books




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